HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER. by Sarah Loring Bailey, 1880
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    CHAPTER I.

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.

     WHOEVER tries to restore a picture of the life of past centuries in any locality, cannot fail to be impressed with the scantiness of ancient relics,-- the meagreness of the actual material at command, in comparison with what has perished.  Only here and there has a fragment been saved from the general destruction, and these relics are not for the most part the monuments that men have reared for the continuance of their name, but rather mere chance waifs preserved without thought or purpose. Especially is astonishment awakened at the wonderful duration of the seemingly most fragile and perishable of materials, while works designed to be strong and enduring have disappeared from off the face of the earth. Inscriptions graven in stone are obliterated; the stone itself crumbles to dust; buildings, raised in the pride of their owners and cherished with the affection of those owners' posterity, drop to ruin, while a scrap of paper, which the zephyr might blow away, or water soak to pulp, or a candle's flame consume, endures, and that not in careful keeping, but tossed hither and thither as waste or worthless, till, at last, somebody. recognizing the jewel, it is picked out of the rubbish and thenceforth kept locked up and guarded in archive of brick and iron, destined again, perhaps, to outlast these strongholds of its security. Thus it is that in groping back for something tangible of the olden times, relics of ancient Andover, we find scarcely a trace or thread of continuity, by which hand can clasp hand with the men and women of the former generations, whose
 
 
 

    2    HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

names are in our town and parish records and books of genealogy, perpetuated in their posterity and familiar to us as household words, and yet who themselves are almost as shadowy and unreal to us their descendants as though they had  never walked the roads we walk, planted the trees we sit under, founded with toil and pain, and blood even, the institutions whose beneficence we enjoy. Hardly a relic now remains in the town-- except on paper-- of the first twenty-five years' labors of those hard-working pioneer settlers who cleared the forest, broke the ground, made their homes, reared their families, and found their graves during the first half century of Andover's incorporated existence. It seems fitting now, however, when the sentiment of the day tends to reminiscence, that the heirs of so rich a legacy of local history and tradition should make some effort to revive the ancestral associations, and quicken that feeling of obligation to former generations out of which grow all noble endeavors for the present generation and all generous solicitude for generations to come. The first glimpse through the vista of the centuries, which brings to view persons and places actually and directly influential and instrumental, in the founding of Andover, takes us back to the year 1639 and the ancient town of Agawam, or Ipswich. All along from the year 1604, and the exploring expedition of Sieur de Monts and Champlain (when a map of the Merrimack River was traced for them on a piece of bark by an Indian sachem), down to the date of the settlement of the town, the neighborhood of Andover receives frequent mention, either as the Valley of Merrimack(1) and Shawshin(2) or as the territory near Cochichawick(3) River or the great pond of Cochichawicke. Several times action had been taken by the General Court relative to

(1) Merrimack is an Indian name, said to mean "the place of swift water."
(2) Shawshin (the spelling most common in the old records, although Shawshine, Shashin, Shashine, Shashene, Shawshene, and later, Shawsheen, are found) is said to mean "Great Spring."
(3) Cochichawicke (the most common and seemingly authorized ancient spelling) means the place of the Great Cascade. (See N. H. Hist. Coll., vol. viii., p.451.) Mr. Nathaniel Ward spelled the name Qui-chech’-acke and Qui-chich’-wick. Also Queacheck, Quyacheck, and various other spellings are found, but, in all, the guttural chich are found, evidently sounded as in which. The Colonial officials adopt the spelling Cochichawicke, or without the final e.
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.  3

"vieweing" it, with reference to a settlement; and committees had been appointed to license "any that may think
 meet to inhabit there," but at the close of the year 1639, when Salem, Lynn, Wenham, Newbury, Ipswich, Rowley, were thriving villages, or considerable towns, the forests of  Andover remained uncleared by the white man's axe; only  the Indian in rude agriculture tilled its fields, or hunted and fished along its streams. There seemed a probability, however, that it would eventually be occupied by "certain residents of Newton," who had petitioned the General Court and received favorable answer therefrom, but on the twenty-second of December, 1639, which begins this narrative of the town's history, a letter was written which decided the dis  posal of this valuable tract of territory. The writer was the Rev. Nathaniel Ward, ex-minister of Ipswich, and afterward author of the sagacious State paper, "The Body of Liberties," and the witty satire, "The Simple Cobbler of Agawam."  The records of the time present a pleasant picture of the cheerful parson and his hospitable fire-side, with its Latin motto on the mantel, "sobrie, juste pie," to which the good man characteristically added "laete," his somewhat heterodox supplement to the approved summary of Puritan virtues.

    The letter before mentioned, he wrote with earnestness, and, doubtless, also with despatch, for there was need of expedition, lest the action which it was designed to forestall should take place in the time that would of necessity intervene between its completion and its arrival at its destination, the distant city of Boston. Through the snows of the scarcely travelled roads, in woods whose trackless wilds bewildered wayfarers to and from settlements scarcely a dozen miles apart; among encampments of savages, of at least suspected friendliness, letter-carrying, done as it was by private messengers, and those often on foot, was precarious and uncertain. Therefore we may believe the writer's quill flew fast, and was mended without delay, as, in his sharp-pointed chirography, he jotted down sententiously the bits of advice on public affairs, which served as an excuse for a letter at this time "To our Honorable Governor at Boston."

      Governor Winthrop had lived at Ipswich, and was con-
 
 
 

    4    HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

    nected by marriage with Mr. Ward. Moreover, the preacher  was a prized counsellor to the Governor in State affairs, adding, to the qualifications for that service which his ministerial ordination was believed to confer, that of having been bred to the bar in the old country. Too worldly wise, some of the good folk of Ipswich parish thought Mr. Ward; and in truth he seems to have had considerable practical sagacity, as the sequel of his enterprise in connection with the new plantation shows; for these few strokes of his pen secured to himself, his townsmen and friends, a large part of the territory embraced in the ancient towns of Haverhill and Andover, with the privileges conferred by the Court on pioneer settlers, namely, "three years immunity from taxes, levies, and public charges and services whatsoever except military discipline."

     Mr. Ward had a son, Mr. John Ward, who had studied  divinity, and a son-in-law, Mr. Gyles Fyrmin, a physician,  to whom the town of Ipswich did not afford a living practice,  and who had even thought of giving up medicine for theology, or of combining the two, as it was the custom of the time to do, in circumstances of necessity. Mr. Nathaniel Ward was therefore desirous to find or to make places where the talents of his family might have scope. Accordingly, he wrote to Governor Winthrop(1)—

     "One more request, that you would not pass your promise, nor give any encouragement concerning any plantation att Quichichacke or Penticutt,(2) till myself and some others either speake or write to you about it, which shall be done so soone as our counsells and contrivalls are ripened. In too much hast, I commit you and your affaires to the guidance, of God, on whom I rest, etc."

     Four days after Mr. Ward's letter, Dr. Fyrmin himself sent
    One(3) seconding his father-in-law's request, and explaining
    fully his motives as already stated. "Considering that the
    gain of physicke will not find me with bread," he says, in
    giving his reasons for studying divinity; and, speaking of
    change of residence, he adds that he "thinks well of Pentuck-

           (1) Mass. Hist. Soc Coll., Fourth Series, vol. vii.
           (2) The site of Haverhill, on the River Merrimack.
           (3) Hutchinson Papers, p. io8.
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.  5

    ett" or of "Quichichwick by Shawshin." Mr. Ward soon
    after wrote again, pressing the matter:--

     "We are led to continue our suite concerning the plantation, I have lately mentioned to you; our company increases apace from divers towns of very desirable men, whereof we desire to be very choise. This next week if God hinder us not, wee purpose to view the places & forthwith to resort to you; in the mean time we crave your secresy & rest. We have already more.than 20 families of very good Christians purposed to goe with us."

     These appeals accomplished the end desired. The Colony
    Records, May 13, 1640, have the following:--

     "The desires of Mr. Ward and Newbury men is comited to the
    Governor [Thomas Dudley] Deputy Governor and Mr. Winthrop
    senior [not elected Governor 1640] to grant it to them p'vided they return answer within three weeks from the 27th p'snt & that they build there before the next Courte."

     A year went by, and no village had yet been begun at the
    place granted, and it seemed doubtful whether there ever
    would be by the persons who bad petitioned; for the neigh-
    boring plantation of Rowley had succeeded in getting its ter-
    ritory so enlarged that the men who had thought of settling
    at Cochichawick feared their prospect of a profitable enter-
    prise was spoiled. Mr. John Woodbridge, of Newbury, who
    subsequently was the first minister of Andover, thus details
    his discouragements in a letter to Mr. Winthrop(1)--

     "TO THE RIGHT HONL. JOHN WINTHROP SEN. ESQ. at his house
    in Boston, these present:

     "Right worthy sir:-- After my service promised &c I am bold
    to write a few lines to you, with desire that you would advise us to the best you can and as speedily as your occasions will permit.  Some of us have desired to plant at Quichichwick & accordingly notwithstanding all the oppositions and discouragements that wee have had, having viewed the place since ye court, were intended this spring to have built there; but there are two things that yet stand in the way to hinder us, the proceeding of either of which may be so great an annoyance that will quite cut off any hopes of being to a plantation there. The first is the intended taking of a farm by Rowley men which the Court allowed them to

         (1) Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., Fifth Series, vol. i.
 
 
 
 

    HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

    doe in lieu of a farme which Mr. Vane had within their bounds, adjoining to their bounds, which though it be not plainly expressed, yett we are credibly informed they intend to take neere Quichichwick so to take away 100 acres of meadow from that place which at best will entertain but a small company by reason of the little quantity of meadow. The second is, that notwithstanding all the agitations of the last court, Mr. Rogers being demanded whether he yett expected any more, answers that the contention, the last Court, was only about the neck & whereas he afterward expressed to the court that his first grant was eight miles into the country, he says, nobody speaking against it, he tooke for granted that he should have eight entire miles into the country, besides what was given, and they purchased from Ipswich & Newbury. These only are the impediments & reason of o’r not proceeding. Now that wch wee would desire of your wo'p
    by way of advice is an answer to these three questions. 1. Whether you apprehend that the Court will allow of their so taking the farme aforesaid in such a place as will be so much praeiudiciall to a Plantation. 2. Whether the court will make good the grant of eight miles, to them or compell them to stand to those bounds only which were specified the last court. 3. Whether you would
    advise me nevertheless to proceed & trust to the Court more or to desist & leave it either all together. I have desired to propose these things first to yourselfe rather than the Governor(1) because I know that he hath allways heretofore bin opposite to my going thither. And the reason why I desire your speedy advice is because some of o’r company have sold them-selves out of house and home & so desire to bee settled as soone as may be. Divers others would gladly know what to trust to & some with some resolution affect Long Island intending speedily to be gone thither, if they settle not here, & for my owne part I have strong solicitations thither, by some not of the meaner sort & (being resolved that I cannot comfortably carry things along as I am) though not there yet elsewhere, I think I must resolve to labour to better myselfe. Thus leaving to your serious consideracion what I have written desiring your speedy advice, I humbly take my leave and rest.
                                       Your worp's to command
                                          JNO WOODBRIDGE

    NFWBERRY this 22th of 1 mo 1640
     (Mar 22 1640-41)
 
 

       (1)Governor Dudley, Mr. Woodbridge's father-in-law.
 
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.   7

     The "Mr.Rogers," referred to was the minister of Rowley,
    who was highly offended, and used some pretty sharp words,
    because the court at first refused to extend Rowley bounds
    for fear of injury to Cochichawick. Ten years afterward
    this neck of land was taken from Rowley and joined to Andover.(1) The line then drawn is presumed to be the same
    that now divides Bradford and Boxford from Andover.

     It seems probable that soon after the above letter, some-
    time during 1641-1642, a settlement was begun at Andover,
    or steps taken to secure the grant to Newbury and Ipswich
    men. They would be likely to make a speedy decision; hav-
    ing, as Mr. Woodbridge's letter states, "sold themselves out
    of house and home," where they had been living. From an
    Act of the General Court, June 14, 1642, it would also appear that a settlement had been made, although the words may possibly refer to a prospective rather than an accomplisbed "village."  Lands were granted along the Shawshin, Concord, and Merrimack rivers, to Cambridge men, on condition that they should build a village; but, "so as it shall not extend to prejudice Charlestown village, or the village of
    Cochitawit."

     On the 10th of May, 1643, the General Court ordered that
    "the whole plantation, within this jurisdiction be divided into four shires." Essex was to contain the towns: "Salem, Linn, Enon [Wenham], Ipswich, Rowley, Newbury, Glocester, Cochichawicke."

     Neither Mr. John Ward nor Mr. Gyles Fyrmin was among the first settlers in the new plantations, though Mr. Ward ultimately went to Pentucket (Haverhill), and was the first min-
    ister of that town. Mr. Nathaniel Ward received a large
    grant of land on the Merrimack River, some six hundred
    acres, which he afterward made over in payment of a debt to
    Harvard College.

     The first business transaction found of any resident of the
    town of Andover (the earliest evidence of any resident's being here), is dated August 13, 1643. It is a deed of land and stock in Ipswich to Richard Barker, "of Cochichawicke."

                (1) Gage's History of Rowley.
 
 
 

    8    HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

     "Know all men by these presents,(1) that I, William Hughes of New Meadowe(2) have devised and granted bargained and sould
    for diver good causes & considerations me tbereunto moving but more especially for ye sum of thirty-eight pounds in hand p'd, ye receipt whereof I acknowledge as alsoe for ye assur-ance of ye som of forty-one pounds more to bee pd to me ye sd William my heires, executors, administrators or assignes at or before ye fourteenth day of October next ensuinge ye date hereof, have devised granted assigned set over and sould unto Richard Barker of Cojichichicke 3 yearling heifers, 2 yearling bulles at twelve pounds ten shillings, twoe kine at tenne pounds, 4 calves at 3 pounds, one house & house-lot Of 7 acres broken up and unbroken-up with all the corne ... thereunto belonging, as also twelve loads of hay, with all the strawe of ye corne, at the farme of Mr. Paine where the said William now lives [the last clause is inserted between the original lines] at tenne pounds all whose above sd pticulars it may be lawful for the sd Richard his heires or assignes to sell assign or
    dispose of, as his owne by right in witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand.
                                          WILLIAM HUGHES.
     "Test ss ______AVERY(?)
         JOHN HUGHES."

     In 1650, a house and land and three cows, in Andover, are
    Mortgaged(3) by job Tyler to John Godfrey, of Newbury.

     The first sale of lands at Andover, of which a deed has
    been found recorded, was by Mr. Simon Bradstreet to Rich-
    ard Sutton: a house-lot and dwelling-house and some fifty
    acres of meadow land. Richard Sutton came from Roxbury
    to Andover; he remained here only a few years, removing to
    Reading, and afterward to Roxbury again. He was active
    in the military service in the Indian wars, and, for his honorable service and sufferings, was, in advanced age, by order of the General Court, exempted from further duty. He left no descendants in Andover, but, as late as 1728 [ancient deed], a tract of land "in the township of Andover was known as Sutton's Plaine, the pine plaine "on ye borders joyning upon Billerica line."

     Richard Sutton's descendants gained honorable distinction

         (1) Essex County Court Papers, vol. i., p. 15.
         (2) Afterward Topsfield. Here Mr. Bradstreet owned 5oo acres.
         (3) Registry of Deeds, "Ipswich," Book 1.
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 9

    in other towns, and by a curious coincidence, and without
    knowledge of an ancestral title of two hundred years' date,
    the family has now become one of the most influential in
    North Andover. Scarcely a half mile from where the early
    settler bought his "house lot, kort yard, and dwelling-house"
    of Mr. Simon Bradstreet, and where he lived, with his neigh-
    bors "George Abbot senr. on the north and George Abbot
    jr. on the south," (Mr. Bradstreet's house not far distant,)
    all of them probably in small and primitive houses of logs or
    unhewn timber, now rises, crowning the hill-top, the elegant
    mansion of General Eben Sutton, the owner of the large
    woolen mills(1) in the village which bears his name.

     Following is the deed from Mr. Bradstreet to Richard Sutton, 1658: (2)—

     "Know all men by these presents, that we Simon Bradstreet of
    Andover and Ann his wife for and in consideration of several
    summes of money and other payments to be made to the said
    Symon & his heires or assignes more particularly mentioned and specified in another wrighting bearing date with these presents have sould and by these presents do give and grant, bargain, sell, assigne and sett over unto Richard Sutton of Roxbury husbandman all that our dwelling-house, situate and being in Andover aforesaid with the kort-yard and house lott thereunto belonging or therewithall now used conteining by estimation eight acres, be ye same more or less, having the house lott (3) of George Abbot senr on the north and a house lott of George Abbot jr on the south and abutting upon the street on the west with forty and eight acres of upland belonging to the sayd house lott lying on the farr
    side of Shawshin river, granted by the town of Andover for six acres, be the same more or less, together with the hovill, fences, proffits, privileges and appurtenances to the said house & premises belonging or appertaining (except a small parcell of meaddow containing by estimation three acres; be the same more or less, lying on the southeast side of Shawshin river aforesaid) together with such other divisions or allot-ments of meddow that belong to the sayd house or lott and may be hereafter granted and assigned

          (1) See Chapter X.
          (2) Essex Registry of Deeds, "Ipswich," Book II., p. 372.
          (3) This indicates the truth of what is elsewhere suggested, that the villagers at first all lived in the north part of the town, and not till later removed to their outlying farm lands.
 
 
 
 

    10     HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

    thereunto by the inhabitants of Andover aforesaid which are
    hereby reserved to the said Symon his heires and assignes. To
    have and to hould the aforesaid house and lott, meadow and upland with the profits and priviledges thereunto belonging (excepting before excepted) unto the sd Richard Sutton, his heires and assignes forever; and we the sayd Simon Bradstreet and Ann his wife doe hereby covenant & promise to and with the said Richard Sutton that it shall, and may be lawful for him the sayd Richard his heires, executors administrators & assi-nes from time to time and at all times forever, lawfully, quietly and peaceably to have hold, possess, and injoye the said house and premises with the privileges and
    appurtenances thereunto belonging (except what is excepted) without any lett, trouble claim or molestation by or from us or either of us our heires, executors administrators or assignes or by or from any other person or persons whatsoever claiming in through by or from us or either of us, them or either of them, their heires or assignes. In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands and seales this tenth of March one thousand six hundred & fifty-eight.
                                 SIMON BRADSTREET (& seall).
                                 ANN BRADSTREET.

     "Signed, sealed and delivered in the
    presence of    GEORGE ABBOT
                   WILLIAM CHANDLER.
 

     "Mr. Simon Bradstreet did acknowledge this wrighting to be his act and deed in Court held at Ipswich the 29th of March 1664."

     The settlements of Andover and Haverhill are thus mentioned in "Good News from New England:"--

   "To raising Townes and Churches new in wilderness they wander
    First Plymouth and then Salem next were placed far asunder
    Woburn, Wenham, Redding, built with little Silver Mettle
    Andover, Haverhill, Berris-banks(1) their habitation settle."

     The first formal description of the town of Andover is
    found in "The Wonder Working Providence of Zion's Saviour in New England," written by Captain Edward Johnson, of Woburn, published in London, 1654:--

     "About this time [the date is approximately given 16481 there was a Town founded about one or two miles distant from the place where the goodly river of Merrimack receives her branches into her own body, hard upon the river of Shawshin, which is one of

         1) Portsmouth-- Strawberry-banks.
 
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.   11

    her chief heads; the honored Mr. Simon Bradstreet taking up his last sitting there hath been a great means to further the work, it being a place well-fitted for the husbandman's hand, were it not that remoteness of the place from towns of trade bringeth forth some inconveniences upon the planters who are inforced to carry their corn far to market. This town is called Andover, and hath good store of land improved for the bigness of it."

     Andover was incorporated May 6, 1646. It was named for the town of Andover, in Hants County, England, which had been the home of some of its principal settlers. The following extract from a letter written by a resident of Andover, England, to a gentleman of our town a few years ago, gives an idea of the mother town as compared with the daughter:--

      "I find that Andover, in America, is of more importance than the same place in England. We have no institutions that can be named that in any way approach those in America, nothing of more note than an old endowed Grammar School...."

     Speaking, of the "South Church Manual," which he had
    received, he says:--

     "I have been much interested in the minute particulars of the customs of the Congregational church ..... They differ but
    little from the old Congregational churches in England .....
    The name of Abbot is not common here, but rare; Holt is often
    heard, but not common; Osgood is not known in our locality;
    Faulkner, Barnard, Ballard, Lovejoy but seldom; Stevens, Poor, and Chandler, are those oftenest occurring."

     In the earliest book of the town records now existing is
    a list of names, which purports to be "the names of all the
    freeholders [householders is written above, as if by another
    hand, in explanation] in order as they came to town":--

     MR. BRADSTREET, JOHN OSGOOD, JOSEPH PARKER, RICH-
    ARD BARKER, JOHN STEVENS, NICHOLAS HOLT, BENJAMIN
    WOODBRIDGE, JOHN FRYE, EDMOND FAULKNER, ROBERT
    BARNARD, DANIEL POOR, NATHAN PARKER, HENRY JACQUES,
    JOHN ASLETT, RICHARD BLAKE, WILLIAM BALLARD, JOHN
    LOVEJOY, THOMAS POOR, GEORGE ABBOT, JOHN RUSS, AN-
    DREW ALLEN, ANDREW FOSTER, THOMAS CHANDLER.
 
 
 
 
 
 

    12  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

     Respecting these, information is scanty. Following are
    some notes and memoranda,-- "memorials" of their life and
    times; such records of their individual history and the fam-
    ily lines of which they were progenitors, as have come to
    notice in tracing the general history, and also such incidental items as serve to illustrate the manners and customs of this early period of the town. The arrangement of the facts is, for the sake of graphic, description and more vivid, illustration, somewhat informal, and such as grows out of the connection of thought in the narrative, rather than the more methodical and logical arrangement which would be required were there fuller material to be disposed of under the several heads. The names are taken up in the order of their respective prominence in the town history.

     SlMON BRADSTREET. It is doubtful if Mr. Bradstreet removed his residence to Cochichawick at the very first planting, as his name occurs in connection with Ipswich, in 1645.
    But he is said to have built a mill on the Cochichawick, 1644. He was the most influential citizen. The "worshipful Mr.
    Simon Bradstreet," he is most often styled. He held office
    in the colony as one of the Executive "Assistants," during
    most of the time of his residence in Andover, and afterward
    was Governor many years. A sketch of his life, and also a
    brief biography of his wife, Mrs. Anne Dudley Bradstreet,
    who is eminent as the first woman poet of America, are given
    in the history of the Bradstreet house, in another part of
    this chapter. The earliest relic found in Andover, of Mr.
    Bradstreet's life and work, is a deed, drawn and witnessed
    by him in 1663. This conveyed the land formerly sold by
    him to Richard Sutton. George Abbot bought the land, and
    the deed has been handed down to his descendants of the
    seventh generation. It is a document imposing and unique
    in style of execution. A facsimile, is given herewith, of
    which the following is a translation, which the ancient writing makes necessary:--

     "Know all men by these presents that I Richard Sutton of
    Andover in the county of Essex weaver and Rachel my wife for
    divers good causes & considerations mee thereunto moving & for recaived payment in Howse & Land wch I have resaived & had
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.  13

    of George Abbot sen'r of Andover aforesd husbandman every ryte & tytell whereof I do acknowledge myselfe satisfyed & payd.  Have Bargained & sold & by this presents doe give, grant bargaine, sell, infeoff, assigne, & make over unto the said George Abbot senr All those my two pc'lls of ox-land or ploughing ground on the westerly side of ye Shawshin river, the one lying & being By Little-hope brooke conteyning by estimation thirty acres, Be the same more or lesse & the other lyinge & being on the west syde of a lyttle peice of meadow belonging to the sd George Abbot containing by estimation eighteen acres be the same more or less,
    both wch peeces I lately purchased of Mr. Simon Bradstreet & are within the bounds of the towne of Andover To have & to hold the aforesd two peices of Land with the wood & timber thereon growing or to be growing to the said George Abbot his heirs & assigns forever. And wee the said Richard Sutton & Rachel his wife doe hereby covenant & promise to & with the sd George Abbot that hee the said George, his heirs, executors administrators & assignes shall or may from tyme to tyme & att all tymes forever lawfully quietly & peaceably have, hold, possesse occupye & enjoy the aforesaid two peeces of Land & every ryt & privilege thereof hereby granted or intended to be granted without any lett, troubles, hinderances, interruption or molestation by the aforesaid Richard or Rachel or either of them our heirs, executors, administrators or assignes, or by or from any person or psons whatsoever claiming in by through or under us or either of us our heirs or assignes, hee the sayd George paying or causing to be payd all rates, Levies,
    or assessments from tyme to tyme that shall be due or lawefully imposed for the above Land either by the Lawe of the Country or custome of the towne of Andover or otherwise, shall save harmless the said Richard & Rachel their heires & assignes forever from any damages for default thereof. In witness whereof we the said Richard & Rachel have hereunto sett or hand and seales this
    eighteenth day of the first month commonly called March, in the yeare of our Lord one thousand six hundred sixty & three & in the fifteenth year of the raigne of ye Soveragne Lord, King Charles the Second.
                                            RICHARD SUTTON
                                                 her mk
                                            RACHEL____SUTTON."
    "Signed, Sealed & Delivered
     in the presence of
      SIMON BRADSTREET
      THOMAS CHANDLER
      JOHN BRADSTREET
 

        (1) For women (except those of remarkable advantages of wealth and culture) to write was unusual in the earliest years of the town history. See Chapter VIII.
 
 
 

    14  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

     "This writing was acknowledged by Richard Sutton to be his
    act and deede & Rachel his wife did give her free consent thereto, this 6th of ffebruary 1664 before mee

                                   SIMON BRADSTREET.

     "ESSEX. SS. This Instrument is Recorded with the Records of
    sd County Lib 31, fol. 209.     STEPH. SEWALL Record,"

     Mr. Simon Bradstreet, after the death of his wife (1672),
    removing to Salem, his house was occupied and his place
    filled in the town by his son,(1) Col. Dudley Bradstreet. The
    latter lived in Andover till his death, 1706.  His wife was
    Ann Wood, widow of Theodore Price. His only son, the
    Rev. Dudley Bradstreet, first master of the Andover Gram-
    mar School, removed to Groton 1708, and was for some years
    pastor of the church there, but subsequently went over to
    England and took orders in the Established Church. The
    other sons of Mr. Simon Bradstreet having settled elsewhere,
    with the departure of Mr. Dudley Bradstreet the name became extinct in Andover. Of the other sons a word may be
    added:--

     Samuel Bradstreet was a physician, graduated at Harvard
    College, 1653. He was representative for Andover to the
    General Court, 1670, although probably then a resident of
    Boston. He died in the West Indies.

     Simon Bradstreet, graduate of Harvard College, 1660, was
    minister of New London, Connecticut.

     John Bradstreet was the only son born in Andover. He
    was born July 22, 1652. He settled in Topsfield, on the
    grant of land made to his father.

     Of the daughters: Dorothy was married to the Rev. Sea-
    born Cotton. Sarah was married to Richard Hubbard (H. U.
    1653); also to Maj. Samuel Ward. Hannah or Anne, to Mr.
    Andrew Wiggin, of Exeter, N.H.  Mercy, to Maj. Nathaniel Wade, of Medford.

     Dr. Samuel Bradstreet's daughter Mercy was married to
    Dr. James Oliver, from whom are descended Dr. Oliver Wen-
    dell Holmes and Mr. Wendell Phillips.

          (1) A sketch of his life and character and his influence in the town will be given in the history of the Bradstreet house.
 
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 15

     Rev. Simon Bradstreet's daughter Lucy was married to
    Hon. Jonathan Remington, of Cambridge. From them were
    descended Dr. William E. Charming and Mr. Richard H.
    Dana.

     MR. JOHN OSGOOD, whose name stands second on the list
    of householders, and also next after that of the minister on
    the list of the ten members who formed the nucleus of the
    first church (a list of ten freeholders was necessary before a church could be organized), was probably the most influen-
    tial citizen, after the Bradstreets and the ministers. He
    came from a town near Andover in England, and it is said
    that it was he who named the new plantation, but of this
    there does not appear any certain evidence.

     Mr. Osgood was the town's first representative to the Gen-
    eral Court, 1651. It is interesting to compare the affairs of
    town and commonwealth now with what they were then when the member from Andover wended his way on foot(1) or on horseback through the woods to the halls of legislation, all undreaming of the coming eras of railway, telegraph, telephone, etc., and without a suspicion that the debates, discussions, and declarations which he and the men of his time were indulging in at town meeting and General Court were the seeds destined to ripen into American independence.  The great problem of the General Assembly just at that time was how to keep a safe neutrality in regard to the civil wars of the mother country, or rather how to seem submissive subjects to the powers that were and yet practically to manage the colonial affairs in their own way. The Massachusetts Colony was Puritan in sentiment, but had no mind to embroil itself in the quarrels across the water. The fact that the colonists thought possible to maintain neutrality is evidence that they had to some extent, even then, severed themselves from the parent government. Indeed, whether England was ruled by king or protector, Massachusetts contrived for the most part, for more than fifty years, to govern herself, and, while professing allegiance, to ignore or evade the laws

    (1) Mr. Simon Bradstreet walked from Salem to Dover in 1641, on official business, as one of the Commissioners of the Colonies.
 
 
 
 

    16  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

    which she had no mind to know and obey. The General Court,
    to which Mr. Osgood was the deputy from Andover, voted, in
    reference to some of the demands of the beloved and hon-
    ored Protector of England, to the effect that it would be in-
    consistent with the colonial conscience to submit its affairs
    to any laws except those made by the freemen of the colony;
    and especially they remonstrated against the appointment of
    any governor, by the Protector, for the colony; demonstrat-
    ing that their charter entitled them to elect their chief ex-
    ecutive in the colony. Cromwell, therefore, left the colo-
    nial magistrates undisturbed,-- Endicott, Governor; Thomas
    Dudley, father-in-law of Mr. Bradstreet, Deputy Governor.
    Mr. Bradstreet was one of the Assistants at this time, Ando-
    ver being honored in having two of her citizens at this early
    day influential in the colonial legislature and government.
    The acts of legislation which engaged the attention of Ando-
    ver's first deputy did not concern especially the town of his
    residence, and are of no particular local interest, being in the main in regard to lands or boundaries, or the regulation of colonial trade and commerce. One or two characteristic acts
    are the following in 1651:--

     "Whereas it is observable that there are many abuses and disorders by dancing in ordinaries [taverns] whether mixt or unmixt upon marriage of some persons this Court doth order that henceforward there shall be no dancing upon such occasion or at other times in ordinaries uppon the paine or penaltie of five shillings for every person that shall so daunce in ordinaries."

     The author of a new book, Mr. Pincheon, was reprimanded
    by the Count for failing "to speak so fully as he ought of the price and merit of Christ's sufferings but afterward he was pardoned, since the Court conceive he is in a hopefull way
    of improvement." A citizen of Lynn was fined fifty pounds
    for having "defamed the management of the town and con-
    trary to the lawe of God and the lawes here established re-
    proached and slandered the courts, magistrates and govern-
    ment."  Such were some of the (as they seem to us) frivolous
    or irrelevant subjects introduced among matters of practical
    and vital interest to the colony. Whether to men who looked
    upon life and civil government, as our ancestors looked upon
 
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SET7LERS.  17

    them, they were questions frivolous and irrelevant to political legislation, and whether larger experience has given to the legislators of the nineteenth century wisdom to come to better and more just decisions respecting the questions which
    our forefathers disposed of so summarily, future centuries will give verdict.

     Mr. Osgood's term of office was short.  In October, 1651,
    he died, aged fifty-six years. During an illness some time before, he had made his will, the first, so far as has been found, of the many testaments of Andover citizens, by which hands reaching forth from beyond the tomb have held strong grip on the treasures which they had laid up on earth, and dead men's "wills" have been, considering the fluctuations of human motives, more potent than those of the living to control
    the transmission of their estates. The will was witnessed by
    two of Mr. Osgood's townsmen, both of whom outlived him
    by more than a quarter of a century. The reader will not
    grudge, the space taken to transcribe this interesting memo-
    rial, one of the few relics(1) of these olden times:--

     "The twelfth of April 1650, in the age of the testator fifty-four [born in 1595 June 23d] I John Osgood of Andover in the County of Essex in New England, Being Sick of Body but in perfect memory do institut and mak my last will & testament in manner and form as foloweth:

     Imprimis, I do give unto my Sonn John Osgood my hous and
     hous-lot with all the accommodations thereunto belonging,
     Broaken-up and Unbroken-up land, with all the meadow there-
     unto belonging fforever, with the proviso that my wife Sarah
     Osgood shall have the moyety or the one half of the hous and
     lands and meadows during her natural life.

    It. I do give & Bequeath to my Sonn Stephen Osgood 25 pounds
     to be payd at 18 years off age in Country pay.

    It. I do give to my dater Elizabeth Osgood 25 pounds to be payd at 18 years off age in Country pay.

    It. I do give to my daughter Sarah Clements 20 shillings to be payd when she is 7 years of age, but if she dy before that time to be null.
    It. I do give to my servant Caleb Johnson one cow-calf to be payd

             (1) Essex County Court Papers, vol. ii, p. 22.
                        2
 
 
 

    18    HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF AADOVER.

     3 yeares Before his time is out and to be kept at the cost of my executor till his time is out.

    I do give to the meeting-hous off Newbury 18 shillings to Buie a cushion for the minister to lay his Book upon: all the rest of my Goods and Chattels unbequeatbed I do give unto my son John Osgood and to Sarah my wife whom I do make joynt executors of my last will and testament & in witness hereof set my hand and seale. I do intreat John Clement of Haverhill and Nicholas Hoult of Andover to be overseers of this my last will and testament.
                                            JOHN OSGOOD
        By me
      In presence off
              JOSEPH PARKER
              RICHARD BARKER."

     The scene of this ancient will-making in Andover was very
    different from that of such occasions now. The house of the
    primitive settler was built of logs, or, if of hewn timber and more pretentious as that of the representative may have
    been, still plain and rude, and devoid of the elegancies or
    comforts of modern time, or of older settlements in the early
    time. For it does not appear from the few records left that
    any of the "first" families of Andover, except the Brad-
    streets (and, perhaps, the Woodbridges), had brought hither
    anything except the absolute necessaries of life, in the way
    of household furniture and appointments. Any ideas of
    there being here at the earliest day, choice china, delft, etc., or silver plate, such as are seen in old collections handed down as heirlooms (except, perhaps, in the families before named), are dispelled by a perusal of the inventory of the furniture and household goods of the next most prominent
    citizen, after Mr. Bradstreet. No family portrait, silver plate, china, or porcelain ware, mahogany, or oak, or damask-covered chair, were in the little humble abode, where this the
    town's first deputy to the General Court made his last will
    and testament; and in his pious regard for the Church of
    Christ he was more ready to expend his money for "cushions
    for the pulpit Bible, "than he was to provide luxurious adornings for his own dwelling. A rude cottage, and plain furniture were all the worldly goods, except his broad acres, that
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.  19

    the sick man had to dispose of, and take leave of, and his
    eye looked out on a landscape far different from the present
    aspect of old Andover. Through the narrow windows of the
    house, set in heavy leaden sashes (if glass windows were
    afforded, instead of oiled paper, often used to admit light),
    he looks off not on cultivated farm and smiling landscape
    stretching everywhere, but to the dense wood beyond the vil-
    lage clearing. He may, perhaps, descry stealthily creeping
    thence an Indian, intent on barter or plunder, or with friendly purpose, to bring a gift to the sick pale-face,-- fish, or game, or powow-charm, and healing herb, to drive away the spell of disease.

     When the twilight shadows fall, and the early-to-bed house-
    hold sink to sleep and silence, except the drowsy watcher at
    the sick bed, the quick ear of the restless patient may catch
    the sound among the crackling brushwood of the deer's light
    tread, venturing near the dwelling, or by the moonlight may
    discern its graceful form and soft eyes peering out from
    copse or corn-field, or perchance he may, roused from dreams
    of Old England, and merry-making with rout of huntsman
    and bugle-horn, start to the dreadful reality of the wilder-
    ness, hear the howling of wolves, and see the glaring pack
    rush past, bearing down on some estray of flock or herd, or
    benighted traveller. It may be, the latch-string of the door
    left loose, a bear snuffing around thrusts his nose over the
    threshold, and draws back growling at sight of the embers
    burning on the hearth, while Reynard, the fox, interrupted
    thereby in his depredations on the chicken-coop, drops the
    fat cock from his back, and arouses up all the cackling brood.

    So drag on the weary hours; howls of wolves, baying of
    hounds, hoot of owl, cry of whip-poor-will, or of loon, startled from its reedy covert by the pond, disturbing the night, till in the glimmering dawn the chorus of morning bird-song begins, and the beat of drum summons the villagers to their daily rounds, and brings the solace of human society to the sick man. Thus wild and primitive is the scene, which fact
    dictates for fancy's sketch of the night-watches in the homes
    of ancient Andover. To make the picture true to life, we
    should set it in a frame-work of Scripture texts and pious
 
 
 
 

    20   HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

    ejaculations, and put into it numberless conflicts and wrest-
    lings, fastings and prayers, witnessed only by the All- seeing. For, firm as was the faith of our fathers in the presence of the invisible God, as firm also was their belief in the presence, if not the omnipresence, of the invisible devil. As they held communion with their divine friend, so did they likewise hold conflict with their demoniac enemy. Prayer was the panoply in which the Puritan was ever clad, and as he kept his loaded musket at hand at all times, in health or in sickness, by day and by night, for defence against sudden attack of savage, so he kept his quivers of Scripture texts, and his magazine of petitions ever ready to quench all the fiery darts of the adversary. When the last enemy had gained the last victory over the militant saint, and, conflict, prayer, will and testament all ended, earth was to be returned to earth again, the funeral rites were simple and character-istic of the Puritan creed. Prayer at the grave of the dead was not allowed, lest it should seem to countenance the Romish masses for the repose of the soul. Whatever was allowed in the way of ceremony and funeral pomp, was no doubt done by the citizens of Andover, to render impressive the burial and honor the memory of their first deputy.

     The Inventory(1) of Mr. Osgood's estate is as follows:--

     "An Inventorie of the Estate of John Osgood sen. of Andover lately deeeased.
                                           L  s  d
    Foure oxen                            30  0  0
    Two steeres                           10  0  0
    Six cowes                             29  0  0
    Seven young cattel                    24  0  0
    Eight swine                           25  0  0
    120 Bushels of wheat                  24  0  0
    30 Bushels of Ry                       5  0  0
    120 Bushels of Indian                 15  0  0
    House Lands & Meadows                 80  0  0
    For Rie sowed                         12  0  0
    Due upon bond                         20  0  0
    Sixty Bushels of Barly                13  0  0

         (1) Essex County Court Records, vol. ii.
 
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 21

    Fifty Bushels of Pease                 8 15  0
    A  feather-bed & furniture             4 10  0
    A flock bed (being half feathers) & furniture  3 10  0
    A flock bed & furniture                2  0  0
    Five payre of sheets & an odd one      2  8  0
    Table linen                            1  0  0
    Fower payre of pillow-beers            0 18  0
    Nineteen yards of Carsamere            5  0  0
    Sixe yards of Serge                    1  4  0
    Ten yards of Canvace                   0  9  0
    A remnant of Serge                     0  9  0
    Penistone (?) ten yards                1 10  0
    Ten payre of stockings                 0 18  0
    Three yards of Stuffe                  0 10  0
    Twenty-two pieces of pewter            2  0  0
    For ye copper & brasse                 4 14  0
    For Iron pott, tongs, cottrell & pot hooks      1  0  0
    Two muskets & a fowling-piece          2 10  0
    Sword, cutlass & bandaleeres           1  5  0
    Yarne & cotton-wool                    0 15  0
    Barrels, tubbs, trays, cheese-moates and pailes  1 10  0
    A stand                                0  5  0
    Bedsteads, cords & chayers             0 14  0
    Chests and wheeles                     0 16  0
    A hayre cloth                          0  5  0
    Bridle & Saddle                        0  5  0
    For sawes                              0 10  0
    Mault                                  1 16  0
    A firkin of Butter                     1  8  0
    Bacon                                  2  0  0
    A yard of holland                      0  3  0
    A yard & a half of calico              0  2  6
    Household implements                   1  0  0
                                          _________
    The Sum of all.                      373  7  6

                                    SARAH OSGOOD"
                                      Hwe O marke
    JOHN CLEMENTS
    NICHOLAS HOULT
      His H marke
    This was recorded 25th, 9th month, 1651.
 
 
 

    22   HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

     From the first settler, whose home was, as appears from
    the inventory, devoid of the luxuries and even of many of
    the comforts of life, have descended generations reared in
    affluence. The pioneer settlers grew rich rapidly. Their
    estates became valuable. Lands which were "granted" to
    the fathers were sold by the children and grandchildren for
    large sums of money. The town of Andover did not long
    lack the refinements which come with wealth, when, as in
    the case of our townsmen, pains are taken to add to it intel-
    lectual culture.

     The Osgood name has been remarkably influential in the
    town, connected both with civil and with military office. For
    a hundred and fifty years there was scarcely a time when
    there were not several military officers, captains, or colonels, in service, and in the list of representatives to the General Court, the name occurs thirty times before the year 1800.  During the Revolutionary period, the Hon. Samuel Osgood, of Andover (North Parish), was State Senator, Repre-sentative to the National Congress, first Commissioner of the
    Treasury, and, after his removal from Andover to New York,
    Postmaster General. Among the representatives of the name in this period were the eminent divine of Medford, Rev. David Osgood, D. D., native of the South Parish, and the physicians at North Andover, Dr. Joseph Osgood, who died 1797, and his son Dr. George Osgood, who died 1823.

     Isaac Osgood, Esq. (resident some time in Salem), Peter
    Osgood, Esq., Captain Timothy Osgood, were respectively
    heads of families influential at North Andover in the last
    fifty years.

     Hon. Gayton P. Osgood, representative to Congress 1833
    (died 1861), was a gentleman of rare culture. he lived at
    North Andover, in the fine mansion(1) (on the Haverhill road)
    built by his father, Isaac Osgood, Esq.

     Captain Isaac Osgood, Rev. Peter Osgood (H. U. 1814),
    Mr. Henry Osgood, were among the later prominent repre-
    sentatives of the name. There are now very few(2) members

         (1) Now the residence of Mr. James Davis.
         (2) Miss Hannah Osgood, daughter of Peter Osgood, Esq., and sister of Rev. Peter Osgood, is living in her eighty-sixth year.
 
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS     23

    of this once large family left in the Andovers. The principal
    of these is Mr. Isaac Osgood, postmaster of North Andover.

     Emigrants from old Andover have carried the name to
    many different places, and among their descendants are num-
    bered many names of distinction. But to collect and record
    even a part of these would require time and space beyond
    our limits. The ancient estates on the Cochichawick are
    still owned by descendants(1) of the Osgood line.

     No trace of memorial tablet, or grave-stone, remains, which
    marked the spot where was laid the body of John Osgood, the first settler, in the old burying-ground, nor any relic of
    the men, his neighbors, whose names are signed as witnesses
    of his will and stand next to his on the list of house-holders.  This burying-ground is at North Andover Centre-- at the southeast of the Bradstreet House,-- on the hill near where was the first meeting-house, and is, besides the house, the only memorial left of the works of the first settlers.

     Of all the tombstones erected in memory of the first
    householders, one alone remains, that in memory Of JOHN
    STEVENS. Its broken stone has been re-set in a granite tab-
    let:--

                                Here lyes buried
                                 The Body of Mr.
                                   JOHN STEVENS
                                  Who deceased ye
                                  11 Day of April
                                   1662 in ye 57
                                  year of his age.

     The stone is quaintly carved and ornamented, but bears no
    eulogy or text. "He lived-- he died,"-- this is indeed the
    sum and "abstract of the historian's page" in regard to the
    life of this, as of many another first settler of Andover, to
    whose memorial monument time and decay have given a longer reprieve than to most of those of his contemporaries.
    His name appears occasionally in the records of the County
    Court, and once in the records of the General Court, 1654:
    "John Stevens of Andover, Henry Short of Newbury, Jo-

(1) Mr. T. Osgood Wardwell, Mrs. S. Osgood Russell, and Mrs. C. Osgood Stevens.
 
 
 
 

    24   HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

    seph Jewett of Rowley, a committee chosen to examine, into
    the grounds of a dispute between Haverhill and Salisbury in
    regard to lands, and to return their apprehentions thereof to
    this Court."  On the 19th of October, they made an elaborate
    and minute report of their action in the matter, detailing
    their surveying, etc., in its full particulars, and stating their conclusion that former surveyors had made a mistake by
    which land was cut off from Haverhill "to their great pjdice"
    Their report was accepted.

     An idea of the house, estate, and style of living of John
    Stevens may be obtained from the following:--

    "An Inveniory(l) of the goods and Chattels of John Stevens of Andover Deceased emprized by George Abbot, Richard Barker, Nathan Parker, Nicholas Noyes, the 28th of Aprill Anno 1662.

     "Imp. His wearing Apparell.
     "It. In the hall, two beds with their furniture. It. One chest and foure boxes. It. Eight payre of sheetes, foure Bolster cases and three payre of pillow-beeres. It. Three table cloaths, 1 dozen of Napkins with other sleight Things.

     "It. One brasse Pott, foure small Kettels one Skillett, a Scummer & warming pan. It. One Iron Pott, an iron posnett, two
    payre of pott hookes, two trammels, a spitt, a payre of tonges & fire-pan, a payre of Cob-irons with a smoothing iron & a trevett.

     "It. Six pewter platters, two brazers, two porrengers, foure
    drinken cuppes, a salt-seller a chamber-pott, a dozen & half of spoones a latten-pan. It. A table board & foure chayres, two cushens two dozen of trenchers, half a dozen of dishes.

     " It. A muskett, corslett & head piece a sword, cutlass and
    halberd. It. A bible with other books. It. In the Leaneto--
    Barrels, wheeles, with other lumber. It. In the Chamber—bed-
    ding. It. Wheate, twenty Bushells, Indian corn ten bushels.
    It. A bridle & saddle & pommel. It. Two flitches of Bacon.
    It. Baggs. It. Flax & yarne. It. Old tubbs with other lumber.
    It. Sawes, Axes, ploughes, with other working tooles. It. Eight oxen. It. Six cows. It. A heifer & two yearlings. It. Three calves. It. Swine. It. A colt & an asse. It. A horse. It. One stocke of bees. It. One carte, sleads, yoakes, chaines plowes & plow-irons, ropes, &c.

    "It. House, barnes, upland, & meadow and corne upon ye
    grounde. Sum total L463. 4. 0."

           (1) Essex County Court Papers, vol. viii., p. 18.
 
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 25

     The inventories of the two citizens, John Osgood and John
    Stevens, are interesting to study, not only for the idea which they give of the amount of property owned by the rich citizens of ancient Andover, but also for the picture they present of the style of living of that time, the household furniture and farm implements. Some of the names of utensils are now unfamiliar in New England households, but they were
    those in use in the old country, and often occur in the Eng-
    lish classics of that period. An "iron possnet" was a sort
    of porringer; "cob-irons" were andirons, with a round ball
    at the top; a "trevett" was a "three-footed stand," probably
    to accompany the smoothing-iron-- a flat-iron stand, in mod-
    ern parlance a "latten-pan" was a pan made of latten, a
    sort of tin; trencbers "were wooden plates, which were in
    common use for the table. Wooden plates and pewter plat-
    ters, or dishes, pewter drinking cups and spoons, no knives
    and forks, are what constituted the table furniture of the two well-to-do farmers of North Andover in 1650-1660. The
    quantity of military outfit is noticeable "Sword, cutlass, halberd, head-piece, corslet (an outfit for a knight of the middle ages), also a musket, but all only costing two pounds.

     The Stevens name was prominent in the early military record. Sergeant John Stevens, 1661; Lieutenant John Stevens, 1689; Captain Benjamin Stevens, about 1725, was one of the most active officers in the frontier service, ranging in quest of Indians. He was representative to the General Court and justice of the peace.

     The name of Stevens was widely known in the colonial time by the brilliant reputation of Rev. Joseph Stevens, grandson of John Stevens, the first settler; also of his son Rev. Benjamin Stevens, D. D., of Kittery, Me., once candidate for the presi-dency of Harvard College. Rev. Phineas Stevens, D. D., was a graduate of Harvard College, 1734; ordained at North Andover, 1740; settled at Boscawen.  Capt. James Stevens, during the French and Indian war, did honorable duty in the King's service. He was also one of the deputies to the General Court. During the Revolution, Adjutant Bimsley Stevens was on the staff of General Ward.

     Among the prominent names of the family are, in recent
    times, Capt. Nathaniel Stevens, one of the early manu-
 
 
 
 

    26  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

    facturers of North Andover (his five sons manufacturers--
    among them Mr. Charles Stevens, of Ware, and Hon. Moses
    T. Stevens, of North Andover); the late Justice William
    Stevens, of Lawrence; his son, Colonel William 0. Stevens
    (attorney, of Dunkirk, N. Y.), killed in the battle of Chancellorsville, May 3, 1863; Major-general Isaac I. Stevens, Governor of Washington Territory, killed in the battle of Chantilly, Va., September 1, 1862; Oliver Stevens, Esq., now
    District Attorney of Suffolk County; Henry J. Stevens, Esq.,
    counsellor at law, Boston; Mr. Phineas Stevens (deceased,
    1864), builder of first mills at Lawrence, civil engineer; Mr. Augustus G. Stevens, now city engineer of Manchester. Mr.
    Warren Stevens and Mr. Enoch Stevens, traders fifty years
    ago, at North Andover,-- also James Stevens, Esq.,-- were
    widely known in this vicinity, and many others of the family,
    especially in the West Parish, had a local name; but enough
    have been mentioned to indicate the descent and perpetuity
    of the family through the centuries.

     Before tracing farther the early settlers we may here pause
    to take a survey of the every-day life in the new plantation,
    and gain a more vivid idea of the manners and customs
    of ancient Andover. First, as to their gaining a legal and
    moral right to the goodly territory on which they settled.
    We have already seen what the action of the General Court
    was in reference to the Cochichawick plantation, and that
    Mr. John Woodbridge was a prime mover in the matter of
    collecting a colony. He and Mr. Edmond Faulkner are said
    to have purchased the land from the Indian sachem, Cut-
    shamache, or Cutshamakin, who lived near Dorchester, and
    who was a kinsman of Passaconaway, the sachem living in
    the region about the Merrimack River, "Old Will," as he
    was sometimes called.

     For the paltry sum of six pounds, currency, and a coat,
    the township of Andover was bought, a tract of land included between Merrimack River, Rowley, Salem, Woburn, and Cambridge. This sale the Indian sachem acknowleged about the time of the town's incorporation, and confirmed before the General Court, as appears from the Colony
    records:--
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 27

     "At a General Court at Boston 6th 3d mo. 1646 Cutshamache,
    Sagamore of ye Massachusetts came into ye Corte & acknowl-
    edged yt for the sum of L6 & a Coat which he had, already received, he had sold to Mr. John Woodbridge in behalfe of ye inhabitants of Cochichawicke now called Andover all his right
    interest & privilege in ye land 6 miles southward from ye towne, two miles eastward to Rowley bounds be ye same more or lesse, northward to Merrimack river, pvided yt ye Indian called Roger and his company may have liberty to take alewives in Cochichawicke River, for their owne eating; but if they either spoyle or steale any corne or other fruite to any considerable value of ye inhabitants there, this liberty of taking fish shall forever cease, and ye said Roger is still to enjoy four acres of ground where he now plants."

     The name of Roger is still perpetuated in Roger's brook
    and Roger's rock,(1) the well-known landmark, near the pres-
    ent site of the South Meeting-house. "Roger and his company" taking alewives in the rivers, or even, in spite of their
    promises, "spoyling or stealing corn" in the white man's
    planting grounds, were no doubt familiar sights to the set-
    tlers of old Andover, for it is to be observed that the clause in the agreement does not imply the possibility of their abstaining wholly from plunder." To any considerable value," left a wide leeway and margin, as a concession to the Indian's natural propensity. Roger's "reservation," of "four
    acres where he now plants," seems never to have occasioned
    any controversy; but he and "his company" (like all his
    race destined to fade away before the invader) have long ago
    ceased to be,-- no descendant of an Indian is now (2) known
    to live on the soil sold by Cutshamache.

     The "village of Cochichawicke" was laid out in house lots,
    chiefly of four acres and eight acres. To many persons who
    have not given special thought to the matter, and are not familiar with colonial life, it is a matter of wonder that the early settlers of the New England towns had not larger homesteads.  When the country was all before them, why did not our forefathers each surround his house with an estate of hundreds of acres, instead of crowding as closely together in living as

          (1) Now removed.
          (2) Some persons now living remember a woman named Nancy Parker, who is said to have been the last Indian.
 
 
 

    28   HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

    though land were scarce, and why are the estates, which
    have been held by families from the time of these first set-
    tlers, not contiguous territory, but scattered all over the town in patches here and there, a wood-lot in one place and a
    meadow two to five miles away?

     A little reflection on the state of things, in which the
    pioneer settlers found themselves, and a study of the records
    of the town and of the proprietors, explain all this.

     It was necessary that the population should be compact together, not only because of the danger of attack from Indians and of the ravages of wild beasts, and the guard to be kept against these, but, also, because the facilities of communication were few for transacting the business of the community.  With no good roads, and few horses, it was desirable that a community mutually dependent should not be scattered over a wide territory. Some ancient rules(1) or directions, for laying out a "towne," are the following, which are likely to have been in general the plan followed at Andover:--

     "Suppose ye towne square 6 miles every waye. The houses orderly placed about ye midst especially ye meeting-house, the which we will suppose to be ye center of ye wholl circumfer-ence. The greatest difficulty is for the employment of ye parts most remote, which (if better direction doe not arise) may be this; the whole being 6 miles, the extent from ye meeting-house in ye center will be unto every side 3 miles; the one half whereof being 2500 paces round about & next unto ye said center, in what condition soever it lyeth may well be distributed & employed unto ye houses within the compass of ye same orderly placed to enjoye comfortable convaniance. Then for yt ground lying without, ye neerest circumferance may be thought fittest to be imployed in farmes into which may be placed skillful bred husbandmen, many or fewe as they may be attayned unto to become farmers, unto such portions as each of them may well & in convenient time improve according to the portion of stocke each of them may be intrusted with.".

     The township was owned by the Proprietors. Some twenty-
    three names are found, but the original lists were lost, and
    after some years persons were counted as proprietors who
    were not among the original ones. The house-lots having
    been assigned, the farm lands (meadow lands, ox-ground,

          (1) Mass. His. Soc. Coll., Fifth Series, vol. i
 
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.  29

    ploughing ground, mowing land, they were variously named)
    were distributed in proportion to each man's house-lot; that
    is, to a four-acre house-lot belonged a certain amount of
    meadow or farm land to an eight-acre house-lot belonged
    double this amount of farm land, etc. These were called
    "house-lot rights" or acre-rights," and thus when a man
    bought a house-lot of eight acres, he had also with it, and at first (as it would seem) inseparable from it in transfer, these farm lands. But the whole township was by no means used
    up and divided out. A large, perhaps the larger, part was
    kept in reserve by the proprietors, and called the "common
    or undivided lands."  From these, grants and sales were made
    from time to time, up to the year 1800, when the whole was
    sold and the money divided for the support of free schools.(1)

     The first house-lots were grouped around the meeting
    house in the north part of the town. The old burying-ground
    marks the site (nearly) of the meeting-house. The estates
    remote from this centre, which are often said to have been
    the "homesteads" of the first settlers, from the fact that the land can be proved to have been held by them, it is not probable were in many instances the places of their first abode, although, in the progress of the settlement, many of the first owners of house-lots undoubtedly removed from their original residence, further from the centre, to their own farm
    lands, where, in time, residence became safer and more con-
    venient. So, as was said, estates and homesteads have been
    handed down from first settlers which were not their first residence, or even perhaps their residence at all. This will appear more clearly in the course of the narrative.

    It is apparent, from what has been said, that the "common"
    lands were not for any ornamental or decorative, or even san-
    itary purposes, such as the "common" of a city or village
    now serves, although in some instances the land now beauti-
    fied and adorned as a public park is a remnant of the former
    common lands of the town-- as Boston "Common," which was used for a pasture. The "common or undivided" lands served for the pasturage of the flocks and herds. Those common lands conven-iently situated were often used as places

          (1) See Chapter VIII., "District Schools;" also "Franklin Academy."
 
 
 

    30   HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

    for military drill, which was rigidly enforced during the Indian wars. These were called "training fields":--

     "1718.-- Voted & passed That the three training-fields, that
    which is called Benjamin's Lott,(1) the old training field; and that between Capt. John Chandler's and Samuel Peters's and Ensign Henry Chandler's, and that by the South Meeting house, all three places shall lye common forever."

     There were also common wood-lands, and for various purposes, as appears from the following in the Proprietors' records:--

     "Andover's Common Clay ground 1aid out and Recorded for to
    Lye Common forever for the Use of all the Town.

     "We the subscribers hereof who were chosen and appointed a
    Committee by the proprietors of Andover at their meeting that
    was on the 22: day January: 1721-2 for to lay out such Pieces of Clay Ground as was then common: whereupon on the seventh
    day of June 1722: was Laid out these three severall pieces of
    clay ground That is to Ly open to the Common and that the Clay in each place is to be free: and common for any of the inhabitance of the said Town of Andover forever: for their own use in Andover: To wit: the first piece of said clay-ground we Laid out for the End aforesaid. Lieth a Littell below Lieut John fries Dam just below his home meadow, that is about Thirty-five pole of Land be it more or Less. Bounded att the North West Corner with a Stake and Stons, then Run eastward four pole and a half to a great stump, then southward .... The second piece of said clay-ground lieth att a place called the miller's meadow clay-pitts, containing about one hundred pole of land .... the north end of it the said hundred pole of Clay ground and the east side of it Joyneth to Robert Swan's Land and the West side to the way that Leadeth from Joseph Ingales to Edward faringtons.  The third piece of said clay Ground lyeth att Rose meadow Broock by the South Side of the way that Leads from Jacob Mastons to Quarter master John barkers."

     As late as 1794 there was a tract of land on Preston's
    Plain, lying west of Boston road and south of the road to
    Ballard's mill, which, "although divided by metes and bounds

         (1) This is believed to have been the land north of or near the present house of Dr. Kittredge, on the hill-- a lot owned by Benjamin Stevens at one time.
 
 
 
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 31

    is yet improved by the owners in one common field," as says
    the ancient document(1) recording the action. A meeting of
    the proprietors was called at Mr. Isaac Blunt's tavern, Sep-
    tember 21, and adjourned to meet at an Oak Tree, on the
    road to Ballard's mill, for the purpose of dividing this "commonage" for separate improvement by the owners, and the
    division was effected.

     It is difficult to ascertain with certainty anything definite about the first house-lots and their occupants, who seem to have removed from place to place in the town. In 1658,
    Richard Sutton bought a house, which had belonged to Mr.
    Bradstreet. The deed gives a clew to the residence of some
    of the other settlers. George Abbot, senior, had his house-
    lot on the north, and George Abbot, junior (not the son, but
    a younger man, "George Abbot tailor," or, "of Rowley," as
    the "Genealogical Register" designates him), had the lot
    south. Robert Barnard's lot adjoined Mr. Bradstreet's; Mr.
    Dane lived near; John Stevens seems to have lived near the
    burying-ground, to the east. Joseph Parker had his lot "toward the mill river, southeast of the meeting-house, bounded by the house lot of Nicholas Holt, and by Mr. Francis Faulkner's on ye common."(2) This was probably as late as 1670.  Henry Ingals lived near the meeting-house, 1687. The Osgood and Johnson lots were toward the Cochichawick, and
    north of it. Richard Barker's was contiguous. It is a tradi-
    tion that John Frye lived south of the Bradstreet House,
    and the Poors near the Shawshin. Thus we learn that the
    first settlers, whose estates are now in the south and west
    parishes of Andover, lived in the beginning at the north part
    of the town. As is stated hereafter the town at first forbade
    any to go to live on their farm lands without express permis-
    sion.

     The names of the proprietors, who had been also house-
    holders before 1681, are given in a list (which, it is stated in the record, was copied from the town books), in the prop-rietors' books. These, as has been said, were not all proprietors

         (1) MSS. of Mr. Asa A. Abbot.
         (2) That he had a lot would not necessarily imply that he lived on it, but more than once in allusions to transactions the families are spoken of as contiguous.
 
 
 

    32   HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

    originally, but from time to time were voted into the number:--

    Abbot, George, senior.
    Abbot, George, junior.
    Abbot, John.
    Allen, Andrew.
    Ballard, William.
    Barker, Richard.
    Barnard, Robert.
    Blanchard,(1) Samuel.
    Bradstreet, Simon.
    Chandler, Thomas.
    Chandler, William, senr.
    Dane, Mr. Francis.
    Farnum, Ralph.

    Farman, Thomas.
    Faulkner, Edmond.
    Foster, Andrew, Senr.
    Foster, Andrew, Junr.
    Frie, John, senr.
    Frie, John, junr.
    Graves, Mark.
    Holt, Nicholas.
    Ingolls, Henry.
    Johnson, Thomas.
    Johnson,John.
    Lovejoy, John, senr.
    Martin, Solomon.

    Osgood, Capt. John.
    Parker, Joseph.
    Parker, Nathan.
    Poor, Daniel.
    Rowell, Thomas.
    Russell, Robart.
    Russ, John, senr.
    Stevens, John, senr.
    Stevens, John, junr.
    Stevens, Nathan.
    Stevens, Timothy.
    Tyler, job.
    Woodbridge,(2) Benjamin.

     The Proprietors in 1714 bought new books, and began a
    careful record of their transactions and the grants made.
    The two volumes of their records are now in the Memorial
    Hall Library, Andover, and are of interest to the curious in
    local history. In looking through them we find frequent
    mention of houses and land-marks, helpful in identifying
    family estates and abodes.

     The Proprietors' Records contain an account of what has
    already been said was the manner of dividing the lands, also
    of the mode of taxation, and when it underwent a change:--

     "The Proprietors in Andover raised their Town Rate By their
    Lots, so that he which hath an eight-acre lot paid double to him that had a four-acre Lott and had also double division of Land and meadow, until the year 1681. Then the proprietors came to a new agreement with themselves and also with all that were then householders: To raise our Town charges by Heads and their Ratable estate and then every man was to be priviledged in all town privileges according to what taxe he Bore and also to have an Interest in the Common Lands in Andover according to the Tax they Bore from the year 1681 to the year 1713."

     The first town-meeting, of which there is any record,(3) was
    holden at the house of John Osgood, 9th inst., 1st, 1656, and
    was, as the record states, "chiefly warned and intended for
    the entering & recording of Town orders now in force and

           (1) Alias Henry Jacques.
           (2) Alias Thomas Chandler.
           (3) The earliest books are lost.
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 33

    particular men's grants of Land in a New Town Book; the
    old being rent and in many places defective and some graunts
    lost."

     In 1660 action was taken by the town in respect to persons' removing their residence, and all citizens were forbidden to go out of the village to live, which at that time of compara-tive security from Indian attacks many were inclined to do.

    The disadvantage of such residence to the general welfare is
    thus set forth and guarded against:--

     "Att a generall Towne meeting March 1660, the Towne taking
    into consideration the great damage that may come to the Town
    by persons living remote from the Towne upon such lands as
    were given them for ploughing or planting and soe, by their hoggs & cattle destroy the meadows adjoyning thereunto have therefore ordered & doe hereby order that whosoever, inhabi-tant or other shall build any dwelling-house in any part of the towne but upon such house lott or other place granted for that end without express leave from the Towne shall forfeit twenty shillings a month for the time he shall soe live in any such p'hibited place p'vided it is
    not intended to restrain any p'son from building any shede for himself or cattle that shall be necessary for the ploughing of his ground or hoeing of his corne, but to restraine only from their constant abode there, the towne having given house lotts to build on to all such as they regard as inhabitants of the towne."

     An instance of the damage done and the trouble caused
    by roving animals is found in a record,(1)1665, of a lawsuit:
    "Simon Bradstreet vs. Daniel Gage" for damages done to the plaintiff's fields by swine owned by the defendant. The
    fence-viewers, Thomas Johnson and Richard Sutton, testified
    in regard to the condition of the fence, that they had viewed
    it, and found it "very sufficient against all orderly cattle."  It was not expected that fences could be made so as to keep out swine, and therefore persons, except innholders, were forbidden by law to keep more than ten of these animals.
    The year before, Mr. Bradstreet, whose suits against his
    neighbors and others were many (the law seems to have been
    resorted to on the most trifling causes in those times), had
    had a case(2) in court against Richard Sutton, which arose

          (1) County Court Papers, vol. xiv
          (2) Court Papers, vol. xiv.
                      3
 
 
 

    34  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

    primarily from the trespass of Mr. Bradstreet's horses on his
    neighbors' premises. The charge brought against Richard
    Sutton was that he intentionally struck and killed one of the
    horses. He claimed that he did not,-- that the horses had
    been in his yard again and again (as he brought witnesses
    to prove) "eating up his cattle's fodder."  One night, when
    they came, he called Mr. Bradstreet's dog and Mr. Dane's
    dog, and set them on the horses, and then was unable to call
    them off, and the dogs had killed a mare. "The doggs pulled
    her downe once in my yard & I beate them off & they fell
    upon her again & almost pulled her downe in Mr. Dane's
    cort yard & I did what I could to save her & I doe believe I
    can prove yt Mr. Dane's dog & Mr. Bradstreet's killed her."
    This was what Richard Sutton said to a neighbor, Thomas
    Abbot, the next day after the affair, as Abbot testified in
    court. The defendant was fined ten pounds; but as his
    townsmen chose him for one of the fence-viewers the next
    year, it would seem that his reputation did not suffer seriously from the cbarge. It is noticeable that in his official capacity his evidence in the suit of "Bradstreet vs. Gage" was in favor of the plaintiff. He did not, however, long remain in Andover; Mr. Bradstreet was a man who would not brook contradiction by his neighbors of less commanding influence, and it would not be surprising if Richard Sutton was glad to sell the house which he had bought from him, and go out of the neighborhood. At any rate, he seems to have removed to where there would be no more danger of trouble from Mr. Bradstreet's horses.

     The trespass of horses some years later caused yet more
    serious trouble between neighbors,-- a hand-to-hand fight
    which came near ending fatally, between William Chandler, Jr., and Walter Wright. These instances, and many others, go to show that it is an error to infer from the strict
    rules and severe penalties for Sabbath-breaking, religious
    heresy, and extravagant dress, that the community was a
    model of good order and sobriety. Persons unfamiliar with
    the facts would be astonished to find how many offences
    there were against the moral and the civil law, and how com-
    mon they were in the families of prominent citizens. Both
 
 
 
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.  35

    the parties in the fray now alluded to were of respectable
    family connections. The young man was the son of William
    Chandler, and nephew of Thomas Chandler, the deputy to
    the General Court; that same year, 1678. Walter Wright
    was in 1689 the constable, and in 1673 had been granted
    encouragement by the town to erect a fulling-mill. The story
    is told simply to show the actual state of the town and of
    society, as it was here and elsewhere, and to correct an erroneous idea that the first century of our colonial history was in every respect superior to the present century, which, if it be true, is a sad commentary on all the labor expended to educate and cultivate and refine the masses. Our ancestors
    were good men, but their age had its faults, which were those
    of a primitive society, rude and not glossed over with any
    fine semblance, which makes right and wrong indistinguish-
    able.

     The trouble between our townsmen in August, 1678, was
    as follows (an extract from the evidence in court,(1) September, 1678):--

     "The Testimony of William Chandler aged about 19 years, who
    saith that a month ago last past, Goodman(2) Right early in the morning came by to my father's house and I being in the yard he sd to me: Well, I will shoot your horse; I asked him why: because sd he, he hath been in my lot tonight. I replyed I am sorry for that; for I did forget to fasten him tonight; but I hope I shall doe soe no more, but Goodman Right replyed: And so you will always forget it; but I will goe home & charge my gun & shoote him, for he hath done me forty shillings worth of hurt this summer."

     The youth retorted, and being exasperated by some further
    offensive words, sprang upon Goodman Wright, and seized him by the collar. They grappled in a fierce tussle, in which
    Wright, being strangled by Chandler, drew a knife and gashed
    the face of the youth, "cut a long deepe gash on my cheeke
    which came very near my throat-- his knife was in the in-

         (1) County Court Papers, vol. xxix., p. 93.
         (2) Only a few of the more wealthy and influential men were spoken of as Mr. All others were called Goodman. Only four of the first settlers have the title Mr.: Bradstreet, Osgood, Faulkner, Woodbridge.
 
 
 

    36.  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

    deavour as I thought to cut my throat,"-- was the testimony
    of Chandler in court. This trial, like the former one, seems
    not to have been any great injury to the reputation of the
    parties, or to have interfered with their standing in the town.

     But the many difficulties growing out of the trespassings
    of domestic animals made the watching of them important.
    They were also in danger of straying off and being lost in
    the woods, or in the boggy grounds. Officers to look after
    them were, therefore, appointed by the town, "reeves" and
    "branding men,"-- the latter to see that all cattle had the
    town-mark, and the former to superintend the driving of
    them to the common lands for pasture. Herdsmen were also employed to watch and drive the cattle and sheep. In the morning many of these were driven out, and back at evening, by the herdsmen, while some were out for the greater part of the season. In 1686 the town voted "that a parcel of land lying between ye land of William Ballard senior and ye pond called Ballards pond and soe to ye end of ye pine plaine and soe betweene ye land of Joseph Ballard, Hugh Stone, & William Blunt & soe to John Abbot shall forever lye for a sheep pasture."

     The herdsmen were assisted in watching the flocks by
    boys and girls, who were obliged also to have some other
    employment meanwhile, so that their time might not be
    wasted, or habits of idleness formed.

     "1642. The Court doe hereupon order and decree that in
    every towne the chosen men are to take care of such as are sett to keep cattle that they be sett to some other employment withall as spinning upon the rock, knitting & weaving tape &c that boyes & girls be not suffered to converse together."

     A scene for the painter, if there had been one to appreciate it, would have been the wild, rocky pasture, with its flocks and herds browsing, tended by boys and girls with knitting-work in hand, or spinning-wheel on the rock, themselves watched by the sharp-eyed herdsman, lest they transgress the rule of silence, while from behind bush or tree the whole party is eyed by lurking Indian or savage beast, waiting an unguarded moment to spring upon a victim.
 
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 37

     To clear the forests of wild beasts was no small part of the
    labor of the primitive settler. It was also in its way a pleasure, as well as a duty,-- one of the few recreations permitted to the Puritan. That the settlers sometimes undertook the chase in another spirit than the motive of self-preservation, appears from " Josselyn's Account of Two Voyages to New England," 1675:--

     "Foxes and wolves are usually hunted in England from Holy
    Rood to Annunciation. In New England they make best sport in
    the depth of winter. They lay a sledg-load of cods-heads on the other side of a paled fence when the moon shines, and about nine or ten of the clock, the foxes come to it; some-times two or three or half a dozen and more, these they shoot and by that time they have cased them there will be as many more; so they continue, shooting and killing of foxes as long as the moon shineth. I have known half a score killed in a night."

     He describes the sport in killing wolves, and narrates with
    gusto some acts which would point a moral for the advocate
    of prevention of cruelty to animals:--

     "A great mastiff held the wolf..... Tying him to a stake
    we bated him with smaller doggs, and had excellent sport; but
    his hinder leg being broken, they knocked out his brains....
    Their eyes shine by night as a Lanthorne ..... The fangs of a
    wolf hung about children's necks keep them from frightning and are very good to rub their gums with when they are breeding of Teeth."

     Josselyn, in his "New England Rarities," also describes
    another method of catching wolves, which was perhaps used
    at Andover, and may offer some clew to the meaning of
    the term "Wolf-hook," of so frequent occurrence in the colo-
    nial records.

     "Four mackerel hooks are bound with brown thread and wool
    wrapped around them and they are dipped into melted tallow, till they be as big and round as an egg. This thing thus pre-pared is laid by some dead carcase which toles the wolves. It is swallowed by them and is the means of their being taken."

     Mr. Bradstreet, in one of his accounts, has an entry or
    order for "25 Wolf-hooks."
 
 
 

    38   HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

     In 1686 it was voted in the town, meeting "that those that
    catch wolves in ye towne of Andover shall have ten shillings
    for each wolfe to be paid by ye towne."

     A valiant hunting feat of an Andover youth is recorded by
    Judge Sewall in his diary, 1680-81, February 3:--

     "Newes is brought of Mr. Dean's(1) [Dane] Son Robinson his
    killing a Lion with his axe at Andover."

     The "lion" was probably a bear, it being common then to
    use the word lion for any great wild beast of which the set-
    tlers stood in terror. Bear-hunting is described by Josselyn.
    As this was no small part of the work and "sport" of the
    Andover settlers, we are not turning aside from our main
    path to note it:--

     "Hunting with doggs they take a tree where they shoot them;
    when he is fat he is excellent venison, which is in Acorn time and in Winter, but then there is none dares to attempt to kill him, but the Indian; he makes his Den amongst thick bushes."

     Den Rock no doubt received its name from being one of the haunts of the bear (although in later times the place has
    gained, perhaps named by divinity students, a theological
    significance, and been called "Devil's Den"). Bear Hill,
    Bruin Hill, Wolfe-pit Meadow, Wild-catt Swamp, Deer Jump,
    Crane Meadow, Rattle-snake Hill, Woodchuck Hill, Scoonk
    Hole,-- suggest the denizens of the woods and meadows, most
    of which have long ago disappeared; and here a plea may be
    pardoned in behalf of the old significant and commemorative
    names. Plain and homely as they are, those already quoted,
    and others found on the ancient records,-- Musquito Brook,
    Five-mile Pond, Great Pond, Dew Meadow, Heather Meadow,
    Rose Meadow, Flaggy Meadow, Rubbish Meadow, Half-moon
    Meadow, Rough Meadow, Ladle Meadow, Pudden-bridge Swamp, Falls Woods, Rockey Hill, Barn Plain, Rail Swamp,
    Cedar Swamp, Little-hope Brook, Roger's Brook, Rowell's
    Folly Brook, Job's Folly, Needless Bridge, Holt's Hill, Foster's Pond, Hagget's Pond, Aslebe Hill, Marble Ridge, and
    many others,-- shall they be supplanted by the trite and flavorless commonplaces which can be found in nearly every

            (1) Dean Robinson(?)
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 39

    suburban town from Maine to Oregon? Let us hold to our
    local names, those which are time-honored and have a mean-
    ing; and in selecting new ones, almost anything, however devoid of elegance, which preserves a fact, is, we may venture to say, preferable to a merely pretty or fine-sounding title. In selecting names for streets, would it not be well to bear this in mind, and draw from our rich repository of local history, or have reference to some actual fact of natural history, or something distinctive and characteristic, even though it be humble? "Pomp's Pond,"(1) for instance,-- who would make it romantic with a mellifluous name, and obliterate the memory of the old colored man, "Pompey Lovejoy" (servant of Capt. William Lovejoy), who had his cabin near it, and made ‘lection cake and beer for the delectation of voters' palates on town-meeting days! This name is almost the only local re-
    minder that negro slavery was one of our early institutions,
    and that for more than a hundred years men and women were
    bought and sold in Andover. Almost in the earliest days of
    the town history (that is to say in its first quarter-century), negro slavery existed. In 1683, Jack, negro servant of Capt. Dudley Bradstreet, died. In 1696, "Stacy, ye servant of Maj. Dudley Bradstreet, a mullatoe born in his house," was
    drowned. In 1690, Lieut. John Osgood complained to the court at Salem, that he had been taxed for a servant boy (" small as to his growth and strength, and in understanding almost a foole"),(2) as much as though the boy were an ablebodied man.

     In 1730, the negro girl Candace was sold by her master, the Rev. John Barnard, to Mr. Benjamin Stevens, who seems to have owned several slaves. The following is the bill of sale:(3)—

     "Know all men by these presents that I John Barnard of Ando-
    ver in the County of Essex and Province of the Massachusetts
    Bay in New England Clerk, for and in Consideration of the sum
    of sixty pounds to me in hand paid or by bond secured by Ben-

         (1) Formerly Ballard's Pond.
         (2) Essex County Court Papers, vol. i., p. 14.
         (3) The original, among the papers of Mr. Barnard's son, Rev. Thomas Barnard, of Salem, was preserved by his friend Col. Benjamin Pickman, among whose papers it was found by the Hon. George B. Loring, and by him contributed to the Essex Institute Collection, 1865.
 
 
 

    40  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER

    jamin Stevens junior of Andover aforesaid, husbandman, Have
    given, granted, sold, conveyed and by these Presents do for myself and Heirs, give, grant, sell, convey and confirm unto Him the said Benjamin Stevens, his Heirs and Assignes forever a certain Negro-Girl named Candace, to Have and to Hold the said Negro-girl, to him the said Benjamin Stevens His Heirs and Assignees forever.

     Further. I the said John Barnard for myself, my Heirs, Exec-
    utors and Administrators do Covenant and Promise to and with
    the said Benjamin Stevens his Heirs, Executors, Administra-tors and Assignes that he the said Benjamin Stevens, his Heirs, Executors, Administrators and Assignes shall legally and peacefully hold the sd Negro Girl forever and that He the sd Barnard his Heirs, Executors & Administrators will warrant and Defend the sale of said Girl to sd Benjamin Stevens, his Heires and assignes against the lawful claims of all and every person whatsoever. In witness whereof I the said John Barnard have hereunto set my Hand and Seal this 14th day of December Anno Domini 1730 and in the fourth year of his Majesty King George the Second.
                         JOHN BARNARD (Seal)
                         SARAH BARNARD (Seal)"

     The original bill of sale, or receipt for money paid for a
    negro girl, 1756, is among the papers preserved on the home-
    stead of George Abbot, Senior, now owned by Mr. John Abbot:--

                        "DUNSTABLE, September 10, 1756.
     "Received of Mr. John Abbot of Andover Fourteen pounds
    thirteen shillings, and seven pence, it being the full value of a negrow Garl named Dinah about five years of age of a Healthy, Sound Constitution, free from any Disease of Body and do hereby Deliver the same Girl to the said Abbot and promise to Defend him in the Improvement of her as his servant forever.

                                        ROBERT BLOOD.
     "Witness my hand - JOHN KIMBALL
                        TEMPLE KIMBALL.

     "This day Oct. 25 (the new style) the within named Girl was five years old."

     Among the records of marriage is "Abraham & Dido servants to Mr. James Bridges Oct. 31, 1744."

     Among the records of intentions of marriage is the following:--
 
 
 

    MEM0RIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.  41

     "Oct. 4, 1755. The Intentions of Marige between Primas and
    Nan negrow servants to John Osgood Esqr. and Mr. Joseph Os-
    good were entered on record. Published and Certeficet Given."

     Although not strictly within the scope of this chapter, the sketch of slavery may here be brought down to the time when it ceased to be legal in Massachusetts. It is not attempted to gather all the facts and details in regard to individual slaves (concerning the sales and transfers of some of whom accounts differ), but merely to present enough to show how prominent a feature of the town history slavery was.

     Some families kept several servants, and (as in the case of Mr. Bradstreet's household and James Bridges's, and as in the Southern States recently) their affairs, and the domestic events and concerns of their households, were of almost as  much interest among their masters' families as in their own.
    But, tender as were the attachments sometimes formed between the servant and the master, and kindly as many servants were treated through life, we have seen that even the minister sold Candace, and that the little five-year old Dinah changed masters, and was carried from her home in Dunstable to a stranger's at Andover.  So, too, when masters had ceased to need the services of their slaves they advertised them to the highest bidder. Witness the following from the "Essex Gazette," 1770:--

     "To be sold by the subscriber cheap for cash or Good Security, a Healthy, Strong, Negro Boy, 20 years old last month, very ingenious in the farming business and can work in iron-work both at blowing and refining and as I am done with the Iron works I have more help than I need on my farm.
                                               JAMES FRYE.     "ANDOVER Apr. 9, 1770."

     Not young men alone, but girls were offered for sale:--

     "To be Sold a Likely, Healthy Negro girl about 14 years old,
    Enquire of Mr. Thomas Bragg, Deputy Sheriff in Andover."
      "September 8, 1770."

     Fugitive servants also were not unknown:--

     "Ran away from the subscriber on the 24th day of September a
    Man Servant about 19 years of age, named Isaac Mott. He had
    on when he went away a blue serge coat and a flowered flannel
 
 
 

    42   HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

    jacket and leather breeches. Whosover will take up the said runaway and bring him to me shall be well rewarded.
                                   JONATHAN ABBOT.

     "ANDOVER Oct 10, 1770."

     The Rev. Samuel Phillips had several slaves. One of these,
    Cato, lived to the age of eighty-five (dying 1851), and saw
    seven generations of his master's family. He was freed by
    the law in 1780, but stayed for some years in the service of his friends. He was a member of the North Church, uniting during the pastorate of Mr. Symmes. When he left his former
    master he wrote an address of farewell, which is creditable
    alike to his ability and to the labors of his protectors for
    his education. Many a white man in Andover could not compose so fair an epistle:--

     "Being about to remove from the family where I have for some time resided, would with the greatest respect I am capable of to the heads of each family respectively take my leave. I desire therefore to return my hearty & unfeigned thanks for your care over me, your kindness to me, also for your timely checks, your faithful reproofs, necessary correction, your wise counsel, seasonable advice, for your endeavors being yet (or when) yet young & my mind tender to frame it in such a manner as to lay a foundation for my Present & future happiness; and also by the blessing of Heaven I hope your endeavors have: nor will not be fruitless.  Being unable to make a compensation either to the author (god) or instrument (yourself) of the advantages I have been favored with equal to them, I hope while in Life to Do all I can to promote the glory of the former and the welfare of the latter. I hope:  you not only having the name but the Disposition of Christians and wishing to have your own imperfections over looked will I trust do the same by me. Some of the family being now in the Decline of Life and according to the course of nature have but a few days to spend here will ere Long I trust be in the enjoyment of that felicity which will be a full compensa-tion for your kindness to me & to others whose Departure hence by many that survived will be greatly missed; but while you tabernacle in the flesh I would Beg you for a remembrance of me in your addresses to the throne of grace.

     "My present wish is that the Blessings of heaven may attend each family and all there Lawful undertakings also there childre to the Latest generation. And I hope that I myself shall be with
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.  43

    the rest enabled to Live in such a manner that I being made meet may be admitted with you into that haven of rest where is no Distinctions    yours with respect.
                      CATO.  May 24th 1789."

     A specimen of the correspondence of Pompey Lovejoy,(1)
    and his friends, is the following letter (a copy from the original):--

                          "BOSTON September 16th 1779

      "DEAR POMPEY-- I am in a very poor state of health at present by a fall. I hurt myself very much. I should take it as a grate favor if you would come down nex Weak and carry me to Andover and by so doing you will oblidge me very much. My kind Love to all Inquiring Friends. No more at present but I remain your        Sincere Friend         PRINCE PROCTOR.

     "Please to embrace an opportunity Next weeke at the Furthest
    If you can Donte let Jenney know that I send you a letter."

     In 1795 a negro slave of Andover, Pomp (not the one of
    the pond), was hanged on the road between Ipswich and
    Rowley, Pingree's Plain, for murdering his master, Capt.
    Charles Furbush. This man had been subject to fits of insanity, and kept at times under guard; but the community
    was shocked at the act and its circumstances of horror, and
    the negro was sentenced to the extreme penalty of the law.

     A tribute to the virtues of a faithful servant is among the
    epitaphs in the Old Burying Ground:--

                                    In Memory of
                                       PRIMUS
                                 Who was a faithful
                                   Servant of Mr.
                                Benjamin Stevens jr.
                               Who died July 25, 1792
                         Aged 72 years, 5 months, 16 days.

     In the Old South Burying Ground is the grave of the last
    slave born in Andover, Rose Coburn, wife of Titus Coburn.
    She was daughter of Benjamin, a slave brought from the
    West Indies, and Phillis, brought from Africa at the age of
    ten years, a servant of Mr. Joshua Frye. The inscription on
    the gravestone is as follows:--

(1) "Pompey Lovejoy" had been a servant of Capt. William Lovejoy. He was the same for whom Pomp's Pond was named.
(2)
 

    44   HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

            Here lies buried the body of
                 ROSE COBURN
            Who died Mar. 19 1859 aet 92 years

     She was born a slave in Andover and was the last survivor of all born here in that condition.

     A pension was paid to her as the widow of a soldier of the Revolution.

     She was a person of great honesty, veracity and intelligence and retained all her faculties in a singular degree to the last.

     Also her daughter Colley Hooper died aged 58, who died first, neither of them leaving any descendants.

     The difficulty of obtaining good hired servants in the col-
    ony was great; the golden age of servicedom, even in 1656,
    lying behind. The Rev. Ezekiel Rogers, of Rowley, wrote
    to his brother pastor, the Rev. Zechariah Symmes, of Charles-
    town, the following lament over the indocility of American
    domestics:--

     "Much ado I have with my own family, hard to get a servant
    glad of catechising or family duties. I had a rare blessing of servants in Yorkshire and those I brought over were a blessing but the young brood doth much afflict me."

     A specimen of some of the Andover hired servants, and
    the "trials," of which they were literally a cause, is the following:--

     "TO THE CONSTABLE OF ANDOVER. You are hereby required to
    attach the body of John _____ to answer such compt as shall be brought against him for stealing severall things as pigges, capons,  mault, bacon, butter, eggs &c & for breaking open a seller doore in the night-- several times &c. 7th 3d month 1661." (1)

     This man was a servant of Mr. Bradstreet. It seems from
    the evidence that he was in the habit of taking chickens,
    "capons," from his master, and making a fire in the lot behind the barn, roasting the fowls, and eating a part himself
    and carrying some to the house of Goodman Russ, who shared the plunder. But Goodwife Russ, for fear of detection and punishment, seems to have betrayed them. She testified that once after John had brought victuals to her

         (1) County Court Papers, vol. vi., p. 132.
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.  45

    house,-- chickens, butter, malt, and other things,-- she was
    up at Mr. Bradstreet's house, and learned that "the mayde
    had missed the things," and said her mistress would blame
    her and be very angry. So Goodwife Russ brought them back, and informed her husband and John what she had done.

     This John at one time killed and roasted a "great fatt
    pigg" in the lot, and he and a comrade, who confessed this
    in the court, ate most of the pig, and gave the rest of it" to the dogges." John proposed that they should steal also some
    flitches of bacon, and put one of the dogs in the room where
    the bacon was hung, and let him "knaw" some, to give the
    idea that the dog was the thief. He boasted of his exploits
    in tbeft with a former master, how "2 or 3 fellowes" used to
    let him down the chimney with a rope into a room where he
    could get "strong beare," and how he "stole a great fatt
    Turkey from his master Jackson; that was fatted against
    his daughter's marriage & roasted it in the wood and ate
    it."

     In regard to his doings, Hannah Barnard "did testifye that
    being in my father's lott near Mr. Bradstreet's Barn did see
    John run after Mr. Bradstreet's fowls & throughing sticks
    & stones at them & into the barne."

     She said after a while peeping through a crack in the barn,
    she saw him throw out a capon which he had killed, and
    heard him call to Sam Martin to come; but when he saw
    that John Bradstreet was with Martin, he ran and picked up
    the capon and hid it under a pear tree.(1)

     The only extenuating evidence adduced was that of two per-
    sons who testified that they bad heard Mr. Bradstreet say that John was one of the best servants to work that he ever had; and of one witness who had worked in the same field with
    John when they carried their dinners. He gave as an excuse
    for and explanation of John's voracious appetite and craving
    for "capons, pigs, malt, cheese, butter, bacon," etc., that the food which was given him "was not fit for any man to eate," the bread was "black &-heavy & soure."

         (1) Within the memory of the writer a very large and evidently very old pear tree (the only one on the place) stood at the east of the present Bradstreet house. It died many years ago.
 
 
 

    46   HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

     But this servant's offences did not consist in stealing alone.  He was malicious or mischievous in doing injury to his master's property, aiding and abetting the youth of the village in the pranks of foolish sport. Stephen Osgood confessed that one morning, about half an hour after daybreak, he and Timothy Stevens and John were passing Mr. Bradstreet's house, and made a movement to run Mr. Bradstreet's wheels down
    hill into the swamp, which they did; and also John "took
    a wheele off Mr. Bradstreet's tumbril and ran it down hill
    and got an old wheel from Goodman Barnards land & sett it
    on the tumbrill."

     Elizabeth Dane, the minister's daughter, deposed (her dep-
    osition taken by her father), that she "was milking(1) late in ye evening June 1661," and heard the voices of men and the
    sound of wheels; these same rogues being at other capers.

     John was brought before the Court again for stealing, after
    he left Andover.

     Besides slaves and hired servants there were, under mas-
    ters," "apprentices." Note that in the colonial days serv-
    ant," not "help," was the term, the ideas of fraternity coming in with the Revolution. Their relations were scarcely less independent toward their employers than were the rela-tions of the slave owned by him. They were not only bound for
    a term of years, but they were often practically sold, the indentures being transferred, although this was probably not
    without the consent of the parties making the indenture. Often, however, these were the selectmen of the town, apprenticing paupers, and caring comparatively little what became of them, so the town were relieved of their support. But often apprentices were of good connections, put to learn a
    trade, in which they might rise to competence or to afflu-ence.  One of the earliest apprentices found on record was Hopestill Tyler. There is a tradition that his father, Job Tyler, was living at Andover when the settlers came here, as Blackstone lived at Boston, "monarch of all he surveyed," until the advent of the "lords brethren," as he said, put him to flight, as the rule of the "lords bishops" had driven him from the

           (1) An accomplishment rare, it is safe to say, among the ministers' daughters of Andover now.
 
 
 

    MEM0RIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 47

    old country. Job Tyler had apprenticed his son Hopestill to
    Thomas Chandler, the blacksmith, 1658. But after the papers were drawn up, he broke the bargain, got possession of the instrument of indenture, entering the house of Nathan Parker, (who wrote the paper, and had it hid in, as he supposed, a safe place,) and stealing it in the absence of the owner of the house. The matter was a cause of long controversy and several trials,-- "Chandler vs. Tyler" and "Tyler vs.
    Chandler," extending over a period of more than ten years,
    and carried from court to court. One paper of interest, in
    connection with this, is a deposition of a witness in regard
    to the terms of the indenture, which it was said "Mr. Brad-
    street" saw, had perused, and judged "to be good and firme."
    In this the mutual obligations of master and apprentice are
    set forth:--

     "That the sd apprentice Hope Tiler should serve the said
    Thomas Chandler faithfully for nine years and a half after the manner of an apprentice, that the master, the said Chandler should
    teach him the trade of a blacksmith so farr as he was capable to learne, and to teach him to read the Bible & to write so as to be able to keepe a book, so as to serve his turne for his trade and to allow unto the sd apprentice convenient meat & drinke, washing, lodging and clothes."

     Job Tyler paid dear for his hard words against a man of so
    great influence as Thomas Chandler, who afterward became
    one of the town's deputies to the General Court, and who was
    one of the principal citizens in point of wealth, in the little community of husbandmen and artisans:--

      "1665 A case in difference between Thomas Chandler of An-
    devour & Job Tiler having formerly been entered in Salem Court in an action of defamation being withdrawne & reference made as appears by their bond to that purpose to Colonel Browne, Edward Denison & Captain Johnson of Roxbury .... they not agreeing, wee the aforesaid Captain Johnson & Edward Denison doe give in our award as followeth: [Job Tyler, being poor, they judge he should not be fined above six pounds.] 'We doe order that Job Tiler shall nayle up or fasten upon the posts of Andivour & Roxbury meeting-houses in a plaine leadgable hand, the acknowl-

          (1) He seems to have removed to Roxbury about 1661.
 
 
 

    48   HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

    edgment to remain so fastened to the posts aforementioned for the space of fourteen days, it to be fastened within the fourteen days at Andevour & tomorrow being the twenty-seventh of January '65 at Roxbury ..... The Confession and acknowledg-ment ordered by us for Job Tiler to make & poste as is above expressed is as followeth.--- Whereas it doth apeare by suffi-cient testimony that I Job Tiler have shamefully reproached Thomas Chandler of Andevour by saying he is a base lying, cozening, cheating knave & that he hath got his estate by cozening in a base reviling manner & that he was recorded for a 1yer & that he was a cheating, lying whoring knave fit for all manner of bawdery, wishing the devill had him, Therefore 1
    Job Tiler doe acknowledge that I have in these expressions most wickedly slandered the said Thomas Chandler & that with-out any just ground, being noe way able to make good these or any of these my slanderous accusations of him & therefore can doe noe lesse but expresse myselfe to be sorry for them & for my cursing of him desiring God & the said Thomas to forgive me & that noe person would think the worse of the said Thomas Chandler for any of these my sinfull expressions   And engaging myself for the future to be more carefull of my expressions both concerning him & otherwise desiring the lord to help me so to doe.

                                         ISAAC JOHNSON.
                                         EDWARD DENISON."

     Job Tyler brought suit against Chandler, and was allowed
    to sue in "forina pauperis," he having no means of paying
    charges; but although the suit was one of special interest,
    and is quoted in the judicial histories, it is not further pertinent to this narrative.

     The apprentice, Hopestill, learned the trade of a black-
    smith, and in 1687 the town granted him "liberty to" set up
    a "shop in ye streete near his house."

     A case(1) of the sale of indentured apprentices occurs between Thomas Chandler and William Curtis, of Salem. The
    apprentice refused to stay with his new master:--

     "The Complaint of William Curtis to the honered Cort....
    humbly sheweth ..... May it please your honors to take notice
    that about 22 months since, I bought a sarvant of Thomas Chandler of Andover, Jacob Presson by name .... . My sarvant continued with me about eleven months, my family at that time being

          (1) County Court Papers, vol. xxv.
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.  49

    very sick and Jacob not being well I gave him leave and lent him a horse to go to Andover to be a while amongst his friends, but being taken sick by the way at his Brothers there he lay for some time; after he recovered he went to Andover to his father Holt's where I was willing he should be awhile but in the beginning of the last winter I sent for my man to com home and he came hom."

     He made an excuse to go for some corn again, and, instead
    of returning, he sent back the horse and stayed away himself.
    He seems to have had a rather unhappy apprenticeship; for
    after his transfer of masters, and his being compelled, as he
    was, by order of the Court, to serve out his time with William Curtis, he presents a petition to the court for the clothes promised him, saying that the said Curtis, of Salem, whom he was appointed by the Court, 1670, to serve, refused at the end of the time to fulfil the terms of the indenture, "in the matter of dubble apparel," .... and that the "poor peti- tioner prays for redress,.....for he is indeed come out
    of his tyme very poore & hath not wherewithall to goe to
    Law to recover his right."

     This petition is made "fforma pauperis."

     The following is a copy of the indenture:(1)—

     "This Indenture made and concluded this twenty day of May
    in the yeare of ye Lord God one thousand six hundred seventy and one & in the three & twentieth year of the reign of ye soveraigne Lord Charles the Second by the Grace of God of England, Scotland, France & Ireland, king, Defender of the Faith &c, Between Ensigne Thomas Chandler of the towne of Merrimack in the County of Essex in New England Blacksmith on ye one part and Jacob Preston of Andover(2) with the full and free consent of Nicolas Holt of Andover(2) aforesaid, his Father-in-law by the marriage of his Mother and also with the full consent of his said Naturall mother hath and doth by these presents bind himselfe an apprentice to ye said Thomas seven years to be compleated and ended accounting from the twenty-sixth day of March last past untill the said seven years next & immediately ensuing the said, 26th of March 1671 shall be fully expired. During which time of seven yeares the said Jacob shall behave & demeane himself dur-

          (1) County Court Papers, vol. xxx., p.43
          (2) There was evidently a misplacement of the names of the towns in the writing.
4

    50  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

    ing his sd apprenticeship as an apprentice or servant ought for to doe according to the usuall & lawdable customs of England in the like cases. During wh time also of seven yeares, the above named Thomas, Master unto ye sd Jacob, is hereby obliged & stands bound at his owne costs & charges to provide & procure for his said servant, meat, drink, cloath-ing, washing, and lodging with all other things convenient, necessary & sufficient for an apprentice as is usuall in England. And the said Chandler is also to learne or
    cause his sd Apprentice to be learnt to read ye English tongue perfectly to write & cypher or cast & keepe accounts sufficiently for his owne employment of a Blacksmith, if his capacities will attaine thereunto. And the sd Thomas is also hereby obliged according to his owne best skill & abilitie to learne and instruct the sd Jacob in the trade & art of a Blacksmith, if the sd Jacob be capable of learning the same, and he shall keepe his said servant Jacob at worke upon the sd trade as much as may be without damage to other necessary occasions that may fall out unavoidably to be done in a family; that so for want of time & use & instruction,
    ye said Jacob may have no just ground to complaine of his owne want of experience or profitting under his sd Master in ye sd Trade of a Blacksmith. Alsoe ye sd Thomas when the sd seaven yeares are expired shall give the sd Jacob two suits of Apparell from head to foot, suitable for a person of his degree, one good & hansom and suitable to weare on ye Sabbath dayes, & the other convenient for ye week days. The said Thomas doth bind himselfe, heires, executors, & administrators to the sd Jacob his heires, & assignes to fulfill the articles herein conteined belonging to him to doe for
    the sd servant. In witnesse whereunto ye sd parties Thomas &
    Jacob as they are severally concerned in this instrument & the articles of the same have hereunto interchangeably sett their hands & seales.

                                    THOMAS CHANDLER
                                      The Mark of
                                    JACOB + PRESTON"

     "Signed sealed & interchangeably delivered before
      GEORGE ABBOT JR
      ALEXANDER SESSIONS.
 

     Edmond Bridges was another apprentice in Andover, at an
    early date. In 1656 he was presented before the Court for
    sundry offences. Among his misdemeanors was "lying,--
    saying he had got an hundred railes for Shawshin Bridge
    whereas it proved but 23 or thereabouts; "also the chief
    charge was his procuring money on pretence that it was by
    order of his father.
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 51

     Another relic of an apprentice's service is the following
    found among the papers handed down from the master, Mr.
    Ephraim Abbot. The original documents are now before
    the writer of this narrative; the painful autograph attesting
    the truth of the servant's statement in regard to his lack of
    learning:--

     (Paper No. 1)-- "This Indenture witnesseth that Arthur Cary
    of Boxford, in the County of Essex in New England hath put &
    doth Bind his Son John Cary apprentice to Jeremiah Hunt of
    Billerica in the County of Middx husbandman and with him, his
    heirs, executors, administrators or assigns, after the manner of an apprentice to serve from the day of the date hereof during the term of eleven years & nine months to be compleated & ended next ensuing. During all which time the said appren-tice, his said Master shall faithfully serve, his secrets keep, his lawful commands gladly every where obey; he shall not wast his master's goods nor lend them unlawfully to any; he shall not commit fornication nor contract matrimony within said term; at cards or dice he shall not play or any other unlawful game whereby his said master may be damaged, he shal not absent himself by day or by night from his master's ser-vice without leave, but in all things behave himself as a faithful apprentice ought to do toward his said master & during all his said term; and the said Jeremiah Hunt the said master for himself his heirs, executors, administrators or  assignes doth hereby covenant promise to teach & Instruct the said apprentice to Read & write and cipher, well by the best way or means he or they can, Finding to the said apprentice good & sufficient meat, drink, apparel, washing, Lodging and all other necessaries both in sickness & health during the said term, and at the expiration thereof to give unto the said apprentice ten pounds currant money of the aforesaid Province and two good suits of apparel for all parts of his body; both lining & woolen sutable for such an apprentice. In witness whereof the parties to these presents have hereunto Inter-changeably set their hands & the thirteenth day of December 1714 and in the first year of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord George King of England, Signed, Sealed & delivered" [There is no signature, but the paper is labelled "Arthur Cary's Indenture."]

     Filed with the above is a paper written after the apprentice
    had served his time, he having meanwhile been transferred
 
 
 

    52   HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

    to Mr. Ephraim Abbot, of Andover, whom he seems to have
    been well pleased with as a master, if the formal paper to
    which his signature is affixed is any indication of his actual sentiment.

     (Paper 2.) "These may certifye all Persons whomsoever it may
    concern that I John Cary son of After [sic] Cary formerly living in ye Town of Boxford being Bound by my father unto Jeremiah Hunt of ye Town of Billerica in ye County of Middlesex in New England to him, his heirs executors, administrators and assignes to serve eleven years and nine months by an Indenture bearing Date December ye thirteenth 1714 and Continuing with him some part of the Term of time it pleased my Master Hunt at my Request to assign my Indenture to Ephraim Abbot of ye towne of Andover in County of Essex in New England oblidging him to fullfil my Indenture to me and I having continued with my master Abbot ye terme of time and being now free by my Indenture, my said Master Abbot has accordingly fulfilled my Indenture to me and every article thereof to my content and satisfaction although through my backwardness and incapacity I have not Larned to Read Wright and cypher as might be desired, though great pains has been taken with me by my abovesaid masters yet my above sd master Ephraim Abbot has been so kind to me as to make it up to me in other things to my content and satisfaction, and I doe by these Presents fully, clearly, and freely acquit and discharge my above sd masters Jeremiah Hunt and Ephraim Abbot of all that they were obliged to do for me by my above sd Indenture and every article herein contained. In witness and Testimony hereof I have hereunto set my hand, This fifteenth day of September Anno Dom 1726.
                                            JOHN CARY.

      "Witness JONATHAN ABBOT
               DANIEL MOOAR.
 

     "I John Cary above signing being informed that I was not
    Twenty one years old when I signed this above acquittance it    being Scrupled by some whether it be sufficient to acquit my above sd master Jeremiah Hunt I do now being of full age acquit and discharge my above,sd master Jeremiah Hunt from and of my above sd Indenture having Recd the full of my Indenture of my above sd master Ephraim Abbot as in the above written acquittance. In wittness hereof I have set my hand this 24 day of December 1726
                                            JOHN CARY.

    "WILLIAM CHANDLER   witness"
     JOHN DUNLAP
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.  53
 
     The same formal "indentures" were made to bind girls to
    service. An indenture is now at hand, dated 1771, between
    Samuel Pettengill, of Wilton, N. H., and Job Foster, of Andover, and Hannah his wife, whereby a child named Hannah
    Silver, daughter of Samuel Silver, was bound by the said Pet-
    tengill, who had taken the girl from the overseers of the poor of Andover. She was to be bound till she was eighteen, and to be provided when she should leave with two suits of ap-
    parel. She was also to "be learned to read" (nothing said
    about writing or ciphering, as in case of the boy).

     A day-laborer or hired man of considerable notoriety in
    Andover and vicinity was one John Godfrey. He worked at
    odd jobs of various sorts, as herdsman, and at "carpenter-
    ing," etc., and ultimately acquired considerable property.  He is mentioned as living in various places,-- Haverhill, Newbury, Andover; but about 1648 he became identified with
    Andover, so that the town may claim the dishonor of his
    name. It occurs more times on the county records, as plain-
    tiff or defendant (it is perhaps safe to say), than the name of any other resident. Indeed, he is said(1) to have had more
    lawsuits than any other man in the colony. He is famous as
    the hero of the first important trial for witchcraft in Essex
    County, thirty-four years before the Salem delusion. He
    was noted for feats of strength, sleight of hand, and tricks of all sorts, and his boastfulness exceeded his power and cun-
    ning, while his quarrelsomeness was proverbial. Getting into
    a dispute with persons at Haverhill who owed him money, he
    threatened them, and threw out dark hints of judgments to
    fall upon their heads. They and their friends, either in ven-
    geance or in terror, petitioned the court for his arrest on
    charge of witchcraft, representing that they had suffered losses in their persons and estates "which came not from any natural causes, but from some il disposed person; they afirme
    that this person is John Godfrey resident at Andover or else-
    where at his pleasure."(2)

     The most extraordinary things were told which persons
 
          (1) Upham's Salem Witchcraft.
          (2) Essex County Court Papers, vol. iv. Also, Upham's Salem Witchcraft; Drake's Annals.
 
 
 

    54   HISTORICAL SAETCHES OFANDOVER.
 
    afflicted by Godfrey had seen and heard and suffered. The
    devil in various shapes had appeared; grinning devils, in the
    shape of bears, had terrified them; a bird had come to suck
    the wife of Job Tyler, of Andover, and she and others had
    fallen into strange fits and sickness.

     The Rev. Mr. Dane used his influence in favor of the accused, and expressed his disbelief in such spiritual manifestations and witchcraft. Godfrey was acquitted, and soon
    he had a suit (for slander and defamation) before the court
    against his accusers. But to follow him from court to court
    would be tedious and profitless.

     If the importance of the subject justified the outlay of time and pains, it would doubtless be possible to ascertain with certainty whether this John Godfrey was the same named in
    the following paper. That he was seems probable, as there is no record of any other person of the name in Andover:--
 
     "This Indenture I made the third day of July anno Domini 1670 witnesseth ye John Godfrey of Andover in the county of Essex, planter,(2) in New England, being of good & perfect mynd & without fraud or deceit, divers valuable considerations him moving thereunto, wherewith the sd Godfrey doth acknowledge bimselfe fully satisfied hath given granted .... unto Benjamin Thomson of Boston in the county of Suffolke in New England School master all and singular my goods, chattels, implements, debts, bonds, bills, speshalties, sums of money lands, houses, clothings, whatsoever as well as moveables or immoveables of what kind .... so ever they be .... my estate as well this side as beyond seas.... to have and to hold .... to enter into possession thereof immediately after the sd Godfrey's decease, without any reckoning to be made or answer to any in his name
                        JOHN GODFREY, his marke"
 
     After the settlers, or "planters," had laid out the town and
    established their homes, and provided the means for religious
    culture and education (which are elsewhere spoken of in full), their first care was the making and improving of roads for access to the older towns; this being essential to the comfort and safety of the new plantation. In 1647, persons were
 
         (1) Essex Registry of Deeds, "Ipswich," Book IV., p. 8.
         (2) Planter was the word used by the colonists, equivalent to settler.
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.     55
 
    appointed by the General Court to lay out the "way from
    Reading to Andover" among them Nicholas Hoult, of Andover; John Osgood and Thomas Hale were to lay out "the
    road from Andivir to Haverhill," also to "viewe ye river (Ipswich River) & make returne to ye Corte of ye necessity &
    charge of a bridge."  Some persons had offered to make a
    bridge and keep it in repair, provided that the General Court
    would grant them lands in the neighborhood of the river.
    Action was taken by the Court the next year in regard to this
    matter of the road and bridge. "For want of a bridge,"(1)
    it was said, "over Ipswich river about 4 miles from Rowley
    especially in winter and at the springe when the waters are
    high, some travellers have been in great danger of drowninge, it being the common road to Andivver and Haverhill, the nearest way from the Bay by many miles to the Eastward."  It was granted to Captain Keane(2) and others, to lay out the lands asked for in the place "whereabouts the bridge
    is to be built."

     It is not to be inferred that there were bridges over the
    large rivers, or even over most of the smaller ones. Fording
    was the custom at the large rivers and at the smaller ones,
    except where bridges could be readily constructed.

     At a later day ferries were established.

     In 1653 the laying out of roads again came up before the
    General Court, and a committee presented the following re-
    port:--

     "Whereas, by order from the Generall Court these fower towns, Ipswich, Newbury, Rowley & Andover should chose men to lay out the common highwayes for the county, from town to town, we whose names are hereunto subscribed being thereunto appoynted have accordingly done it, beginninge at the South end of Andover continuing it in the cartway neere half a mile unto a hill at the foot of the Hill called Bare hill as it is marked with trees, then cominge into the beaten way which leadeth over a playne belonging to Rowley, so leading on the South west of a pond called Five mile pond & then continuing the cartway unto a pond called Mr. Baker's pond, leaving the pond on the South & so passing a little
 
         (1) Mass. Colony Records.
         (2) First Captain of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Boston.  He married a sister of Mrs. Anne Dudley Bradstreet.
 

 

    56.  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    strip of meddow & so on the cart way to Mr. Winthrop's playne & so still following the cartway on the South Side of Capt.         Turner's hill & from thence the beaten way to Ipswich.

     "Now half a mile short of the Five mile pond from Andover begines the way to Rowley & Newbury goinge on the beaten way of the south Side of the Bald Hills & continuinge the beaten way until it come to the uppermost Falls River then by marked trees leadinge into the cart path leadinge from Haverhill to, Rowley & so on to a new field of Roweleys & from Andevour to Newbury goes on the old cart-way leaving Rowley-way at the beginning of a playne by a little swamp called Berberry Swampe & so on the old way to the Falls River & from thence straight upon the north side of Mr. Shewells high field as still doth appeare by marked trees, from thence keeping the old cart-way on the head of Cart Creeke & so running on the north side of Richard Hodges field as it is now fenced & so to John Halls bridge & so over the end of John Halls playne unto Mr. Woodman's bridge neere the mill at Newbury. Witness of hands
                  RICHARD BARKER       JAMES HOW
                  THOMAS HOLT          JOHN PICKARD."

     There were frequent changes and laying out of better and
    shorter ways, the roads not being much more than rough
    wood paths. They are often called by this name, the "path
    to Newbury," the "path to Oburne."

     The following is "a petition," in 1671, of the town of
    Salem,(1) complaining of the road to Andover:--

     "To the Honored Generall Court now Assembled at Boston, the
    humble petition of the Selectmen of Salem.

     "These may inform your Honers that their hath been for som
    years A Country Highway Laying out between Salem and Andovar the which of late is Layd out And we cannot but Judge very
    unequall with Respect to the Towne of Salem and prejudiciall to the Country, and we have long thought and spok with our neighbors of Andevour about finding A better way, but by Reason of Unseasonable Rains this two last Summers have been prevented of what we Intended and since by the Court of Salem, the town has been fined five pounds and is like to be fined five or ten pounds more Although we have now found a way by much shorter and so much better that will not cost a fourth part of the charge to mak it passable, as the way that was first layd out, having as

           (1) County Court Papers, vol. xiv.
 

 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 57
 
    we Consider about a hundred rodd of meadow & Swamp in not
    much more than two myles & some of it very deep-- &c " (peti-
    tioning to be allowed to lay out the "new way" which they had
    found)."

     Imagination pictures those ancient road-makers in their
    lonely journeys through the forests, exposed to perils of wild beasts and of hostile Indians, who lurked about to steal, if not to kill. In these modern days a "ride through the
    woods" suggests something pleasant and refreshing, but
    when great unbroken forests extended all around, hemming
    in and cutting off from friendly neighbor the little commu-
    nities, the woods were viewed with feelings of quite a dif-ferent sort; to, clear the timber and make roads were then of
    prime importance.

     The people of Andover did not like "the newe waye
    to Salem, and in turn presented(1) their grievances to the
    Court:--
 
     "To ye Hon'd Court now sitting att Salem this 26th of June
    1688, the petition of ye Selectmen of Andover in behalf of sd
    Town humbly sheweth: That whereas ye law of ye Country allows
    us ye nearest and best way to every town and we being att present destitute of a way to Salem which is ye nearest Market Towne there having been a way formerly lay'd out by Wills Hill(2) but again altered by a Committee to ye great damage and inconvenience of us ye inhabitants of Andover: it being almost impossible with a cart (which instrument inland Towns must make use of for Transportation) and ye former way being both nearer (as we have proved by measure) & far better and little charge in making of it good: Each ptickler of which Capt. Osgood, (whome we have appointed to attend this Honered Court in ye prosecution of sd way) will further make appear our humble request to this Hon’d Court is that ye sd old way may be settled & started that ye Honors' humble petitioners may not be burthened any longer with such rocky impassable ways as indanger ye lives & limbs of o'selves & beasts."
 
     The river Merrimack furnished facilities for Andover's
    communication with the towns along its course, and was
    made use of as early as 1674, between Bradford and New-
 
            (1) County Court Papers, vol. xxxix., p. 144.
            (2) In Middleton.
 

 

    58   HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    bury. At that time the bark Adventure ran up river, and
    Mr. Dudley Bradstreet, of Andover, sent for goods, to be
    delivered at Griffin's Tavern, Bradford. Failing to receive
    them, he served an attachment(1) on the boatman:--

     .... "You are required in his majesty's name to attach ye
    body and goods of Edward Richardson jun. ye boatman & take
    bond of him to ye value of two hundred pounds with sufficient
    suretie or sureties for his appearance at ye next County Court to be holden at Salem upon ye last Tuesday in June next, then and there to answer to the complaint of Dudley Bradstreet of Andover in an action of the case for not delivering of severall goods received on board ye barke Adventure according to receipt under ye sd Richardsons hand, bearing date Nov. ye 21 1673, which goods were received upon freight & to be deliv-ered at ye house of John
    Griffin at Bradford as by ye said receipt will appear & for all just damage and soe make a true returne Under ye hand.
                                   DUDLEY BRADSTREET.
 
             "By the Cort.
     "Dated ye 14 Aprill 1674."

     There were also vessels built and launched on the Merri-
    mack at Andover. Major John March, of Newbury, an enter-prising capitalist, and also prominent in military service,
    undertook the experiment at first:--

     (Andover, town-meeting-- 1697.) "Granted libertie to Maj.
    John March of Newbury to take what timber is convenient for ye building of two vessels not exceeding fifty tons apiece, provided he build such vessels in Andover and to use noe timber that is fitt for ye building of houses or making of posts .... what timber is to be felled and carted for sd vessels, Andover men shall have ye benefit of, provided they will work with themselves & teems as reasonably as in other places they doe."

     In 1711 Major, then Colonel, March is again granted "encouragement."

     "Voted & passed that Coll. John March shall have libertie of
    trying the experiment of building a sloop in some convenient place for launching into Merrimack River and to have the benefit of what timber can be found already felled, and also if need be to supply him with the liberty of cutting half a dozen sticks for some choyse use for the vessel if Timber for such use cannot be found already felled."

         (1) Essex County Court Papers, vol. xxii., p. 30.
 

 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.  59
 
     Colonel March was called into active service in the Indian
    wars, and did not carry out his plan of ship-building, and the management of it was intrusted to an Andover man.

     "Voted Liberty to Lieut John Aslebe to make use of the Tim-
    ber which was voted for Coll. John March to build a sloop in Andover of about 40 Tons and to cutt off from the common what is still wanted to make it fitt for launching. This former vote not rightly understood in the entry and rectifyed as follows:

     "Granted liberty to Lieut Jno Aslebe to cutt what timber is necessary for the Building of a vessel of about 40 tons."

     In 1715 (perhaps earlier), there was a ferry between An-
    dover and Haverhill.(1)

     "March 1715-- Robert Swan of Haverhill(2) moving to this
    Court for liberty to keepe a ferry over Merrimack river having procured ye approbation of ye Selectmen of Haverhill & Andover in favour thereof Ordered that ye Said Robert Swan hath liberty & is hereby licensed to keep a ferry over Merrimack river nigh his house & from this time till further order of the Court to keep a good Classe boat for ye Trans-porting ye king's subjects & their horses as need may require safely, he observing therein ye Lawes of this province referr-ing to Ferries.

     Ye fare allowed by this court is as followeth.
     for man, or woman or children . . . .  2d
     for horse. . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4d
     for other creatures in proportion"
 
     In 1735, Daniel Bodwell, of Methuen, had a ferry across
    the Merrimack, and made the following agreement with the
    selectmen of Andover to carry passengers:--

     "Articles of Agreement between Lieut Daniell Bodwell of Methuen.  In His Majestys Province of the Massachusetts Bay in New England Gentleman on ye one part & Capt. Timothy Johnson, Capt. John Chandler, & Lieut. William Lovejoy. Selectmen for the Town of Andover on the other part.

     "Whereas the sd Lieut. Bodwell hath a Ferry over Merrimack
    River against the Land of Mr. John Poor; I the said Lieut. Bodwell Do hereby oblige myself my Heires and assignes to carry over sd Ferry any of the Inhabitants of Andover as Followeth
 
            (1) Now Methuen, or Lawrence.
            (2) The Swans attended church at Andover North Parish, and were assessed there.
 

 

    60  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    (viz.) one person for a penny, a man and his horse for four pence & for other creatures as I carry them for our town."
 
     Swan's ferry was also running at the same time, a com-
    mittee being chosen by the town of Andover, in 1734, to
    discourse the ferry men, namely Swans ferrymen and Bodwells ferrymen to see whie Andover people may not pass sd ferrys over to Methuen at the same price as Methuen people doth pass the ferries & Bring the terms of the sd Ferrymen to Andover."

     The terms "were explained as in the agreement.  Not only were the travelling facilities, roads, paths, ferries,
    etc., a subject of frequent town action, but boundaries between towns were a fruitful source of discussion and of litigation. The amount of perambulating, or "pre-ambulating "
    (as the vernacular phrases it) on record is fatiguing even to
    read of.  The lines run by "marked trees, stakes and stones,"
    by each set of surveyors, seem to have been different from
    those run by their predecessors in office:--

     "2d March 1670. Whereas there is now a difference between our towne and the towne of Woburn, conserning the bounds between them and us, the towne hath given full power to the Selectmen to order and prosecute all measures whether by Law or otherwise to the ending all such differences and all charges to be borne by the Towne."
 
     The following pathetic appeal indicates the distress and
    perplexity of the perambulators:--
 
     "To YE SELECTMEN OF BILLERICA: Loving friends and neigh-
    bors we have bine of late under such surcomstances that we could not tell whether wee had any bounds or no between our towne, but now we begine to think we have-- this therefore are to desier you to send some men to meet with ours upon the third munday of ye next month by nine a'clock in ye morning, if it be a faire day, if not the next drie day and so to run one both side of the river and to meet at the vesil place and the west side of ye river.
     "ANDOVER, March the 21: 1689-90

                             THOMAS CHANDLER in ye name
                             and by the order of ye Selectmen. "
 
     But one of the earliest and also one of the most interesting
 

 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.   61
 
    records of a contention about the bounds of the adjacent
    towns, is a petition(1) of the town of Andover, in 1658, in regard to the encroachments of the towns of Billerica and
    Reading. The incidental allusions to the founders of the
    plantation, their aims and motives, and their discourage-
    ments, also the autograph signatures of the proprietors at
    that early period, make this manuscript one of special in-
    terest among those of the archives:--
 
     "TO THE HONERD GENERAL COURT NOW ASSEMBLED AT BOSTON,
    "The humble petition of the Towne of Andover Humbly sheweth that the Inhabitants of this place ware incouraged to set
    downe here in a remote upland plantation farre from Neigh-bores and destitute of other conveniences that many other townes enjoy, not only out of general persuasion and assurance to obtayne such priviledges and accommodations as the Court doth ordinarily grant to ye like plantations and as the place would permit, but especially by a particular provision this honored Court was pleased to make that the great and large graunt to the Towne of Cambridge extending more than Twenty miles in length should not prejudice this plantation, yet so it falls out Much Honoured that the Inhabitants of Bilricay who through the favour and large grant of lands by this Court hath obtained the interest belonging to Cambridge doe notwith-standing presse so hard (and as we conceive) unreasonably upon us as not only to deprive us of that which we have purchased of the Indians, w'h the consent and approbation of this Honored Court but also to take away part of our Meddow wh we
    have mowed these several yeares (of which they have little need) to the great prejudice, if not utter undoing, of some of our Inhabitants who know not whither to remove nor can this poor place (straightened for want of meadow more than most plantations) supply them wh more. We are therefore necessi-tated (though otherwise most unwilling to interrupt your more weighty occasions) to implore your just favour for reliefe, that by yourselves, or such as you shall please to appoint, our case may be heard & determined; and whereas the Inhabi-tants of Redding hath runne their Northerly lynes and marked trees for their bounds a mile or more within the limits granted to us by this Court our humble desire is that this honoured Court will be pleased likewise to Issue that differ-
 
         (1) Mass. Archives, vol. cxii., p. 99.
 

 

    62   HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    ence also according to equity and the trew interest of the several respective graunts, and we shall humbly pray:--

    FRANCIS DANE
    GEORGE ABBOT
    THOMAS CHANDLER
    DANIEL PORE
    JOHN ASLET
    WILLIAM BALLARD
    JOHN LOVEJOY
    JOHN OSGOOD
 
    EDMOND FFAULKNER
    THOMAS JOHNSON
    HENRY 1NGALS
    RICHARD BARKER
    JOHN STEVENS
    JOSEPH PARKER
    NIKLES HOULT
    JOHN FFRIE
    GEORGE ABBOT

     "20th May 1658."
 
     The Court granted this petition of Andover men so far as
    to confirm their right to thirty acres of meadow on the Shaw-
    shin River, which was claimed by Billerica. But the disputes,
    as we see, after more than twenty years, had not come to, an
    end,-- the Billerica people pressing their claims and making
    encroachments so often that, between the resistants and the
    claimants, pro and con, the puzzled perarmbulators might well
    say they "could not tell whether wee have any bounds or
    not."

     When the town of Wilmington was laid out, the original
    bounds of Andover, Woburn, and Billerica again became a
    subject of dispute, and a controversy ensued between Wil-
    mington and Andover which lasted above ten years, peram-
    bulation after perambulation being made, and the committees
    of the towns being unable to agree; Wilmington perambula-
    tors and Andover perambulators proceeding for a certain
    distance amicably and then separating in contention,-- as
    for example:--
 
     "Oct. 7th 1734 Then the Committy of Andover and Wilmington
    meet in order to preambulate the Line between Andover and Wilmington and Andover, and wee meet at Reading corner so called, whare according to the General Court Grant, Wilmington Begun with Andover; and the Commity of Andover Refused to preambulate with Wilmington Comitty unless thay would pream-bulate with them to a pine called Sutten's pine, which pine stands as we judg half a mile Downe upone Bildrica Line; and upone Andover Commitys Refusing to preambulate the Line, wee the Comitty of
 

 
    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 63
 
    Wilmington offered to preambulate the Line with them so far as wee Joyned upone them untill wee come to Bildrica Line."
                 [Signed byWilmington perambulators.]
 
     A tract of land long in dispute, not only by Andover claim-
    ants, but by the town of Charlestown and by Woburn citizens, was called the Land of Nod. It lay remote from villages, in a sort of wilderness region, which probably suggested to our Scripture-reading forefathers the place described as the refuge of the outcast Cain, and therefore gained its name
    of "Nod."  A parcel of meadow in it was owned by John,
    Joseph, and Ephraim Abbot, of Andover, "Beaver-dam
    Meadow," but was claimed by Thomas Rich, of Reading, as
    being included in a purchase made by him from the town of
    Charlestown, of some two hundred and thirty acres of land
    in Woburn, it being the interest(1) of the town of Charles-
    town in the "Land of Nod."  The Abbot brothers made a
    compromise and agreement with the purchaser, and relinquished their claim to him, but some citizens of Woburn were not so easily satisfied that the town of Charlestown had a right to dispose of this territory, and the "Land of Nod" became famous in the annals of that period's litigation.

     The colonial boundaries and claims engaged the attention
    of Andover citizens in town meeting assembled,-- the great
    dispute about the Mason and Gorges claims to the settle-
    ments in Maine and New Hampshire:--
 
     "March 5th 1682 Capt. Bradstreet was chosen to goe to Ipswich ye first day of Ipswich Court, there to consult with & hear what ye Gentlemen of ye severall townes betwixt Naumkeake & Merrimack that are to meet there about Mr. Masons claims have to make report to ye same."
 
     The claim of Mason extended to Salem, but, as appeared,
    without valid title.

     The grants of land within the town were also a subject of
    discussion and difficulty; the indiscriminate giving, out of
    lands being opposed by the more prudent. In 1674 the town
    took the following action on the subject:--

     "Whereas there is a greate controversie in ye towne about giving

          (1) The original deed is at hand.
 
 
 

    64   HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    out of land, the town therefore have chosen a committee to consider of ye same to se if it be convenient to give away any more land or how & to whome; they have therefore chosen Mr. Dudley Bradstreet, Left. Osgood, Ensigne Chandler, Goodman Barker, Goodman frie sen. Jono frie jun. George Abbot sen, Daniel Poore, Thomas Johnsin, John Lovejoy, Sergt. Steevens, to consider about ye same and bring in ye result against ye next meeting-day."

     Also the highways in the town, as well as the roads from
    the town, were a subject of much voting.

     17th Oct. 1661. It is ordered "that every male person of sixteen years shall upon three or four days warning by the surveyor attend the mending of the highways upon forfeit of double damage for every day's neglect by any person and soe likewise everie teame, that is, every man fower shillings a day so neglecting."

     In the course of time, if not at first, in order to accommo-
    date the town, it became necessary to run roads through private lands. These were used as highways, but kept closed
    by gates or bars; as, for example, in the proprietors' grant to John Aslebe: "Reserved a good and convenyant drift cart-
    way through said land, and said Aslebee to make and main-
    taine good and handy gates or bares to pass & repass through
    forever." The following is a paper relating to the repairs of
    the highways in the west part of Andover, which has been kept among the papers of the citizen who received it, from the time of its date:--
 
                     "ESSEX ss. ANDOVER, March 25, 1746.
     "To MR. EBENEZER LOVEJOY JR. Surveyor of Highways Greeting:

     "These are in His Majesty's Name to will & Requir you to see
    that each man named in this List work out the sums underneath
    his name on the Highways on the Months of May & June Next.
    On the Road that you ware ordered by the Selectmen to work on
    the year past, allowing each man 9s per day for a yoke of oxen; 2s for a cart.
     Eben'r Lovejoy         1  2  0
     Timothy More           1  7  3
     John Lovejoy           0 15  7
     Saml Blanchard         0 15  0
     Jonathan Blanchard     0  7  2
     Thomas Blanchard jr    0  5  3
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.   63
 
    Moses Hagget            0  6  9
    Doc'r Nehemiah Abbot    0  9  9
    Stephen Blanchard       0 16  4
    Benjamin Smith          0  5  0
    Charles Furbush         0  5  0
    Samuel Bayle            0 12 11
    David Osgood            0  3  5
 
    GEORGE ABBOT        Selectmen
    NATHL FRIE             of
    TiMOTHY BALLARD      Andovir"
 
 
     In granting land to Hamboro Blunt in 1718, it was excepted that there should be a "drift way through Bars for John Marston to pass and repass to his meadows and his heirs and sucksessors forever, they always_putting up the bars safe after them." There are many other stipulations in the
    records in which parties agree to maintain "good gates"
    across the highways that pass through their land. A deal of
    dismounting from horse or cart or tumbril there must have
    been in those days, to open and shut gates and put up bars.
    A journey two hundred years ago from one end of the town
    to the other, or from Andover to the neighboring towns, was
    made slowly and with many liabilities of delay, from the various causes before mentioned, the dangers of Indians and
    wild beasts, the bad roads, the often impassable streams, the
    perils of being lost in the woods in blinding storms, or of
    going far out of the way, misled by the imperfect landmarks
    of trees, stakes, and stones.

     These journeys, slow and. sometimes painful, necessitated
    many places of rest and refreshment, "entertainment for man
    and beast."  A man in a town who had a large house often
    took in travellers as a matter of courtesy, and thus it hap-
    pened that in some cases, especially in the early history of
    the towns, the innkeeper or "innholder" was one of the prin-
    cipal citizens. The public house was called an "inn," "tav-
    ern," or "ordinary." The owner, "innholder," or "taverner,"
    was often a "vintnor," licensed to sell wines and strong liq-
    uors. The first on record to whom this license was granted(1) was Mr. Edmond Faulkner, in 1648, "he paying to the treas-

            (1) Colony Records.
                      5
 

 
 
    66   HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    ury for what he draws, as others do."  There were also, in
    the larger towns, persons licensed to sell liquors "out of
    doors,"  that is, to those persons who were not guests in their house as in an inn. These were called "Retailers."(1) The "taverners" kept a house of refreshment, as is supposed,
    without lodgings, a sort of restaurant. In Boston, in 1680,
    there were licensed six wine taverners, ten innholders, eight
    retailers for wine and strong liquors out of doors. Andover
    was allowed one "retailer for wine and liquors out of doors,"
    and two public houses. The sale of liquors to Indians made
    much trouble, many of them, "by excessive and abusive
    drinking," as was stated in the act of the General Court regulating the sale of liquors, "being overcome with swinish
    drunkenness."  The Court therefore ordered that only the
    most trustworthy citizens should be allowed to sell liquors to Indians, and that they should only sell what in their judg-
    ment" seems meete & necessary for their reliefe."

     Deacon John Frye, of Andover, was in 1654 appointed re-
    tailer of strong liquors.

     In 1689, Lieut. John Osgood was innholder. The following is a petition(2) made by him to the County Court, to renew his license for keeping a public house:--

     "TO THE HONORED COUNTY CORTE NOW SITTING AT SALEM:--

     "I move to your Honers to renewing license ffor keeping a Publick house, & I would have waited upon the corte personally but a bizness of a publick nature hinders me: that is the comitee off molitiah are this day to make up the account about our soldiers & I have sent here-with my sone to pay the ffees: the granting of which will serve him who is yours to serve in whatsoever he may
                                            JOHN OSGOOD.

      "ANDOVER 27:9.89"                            [Granted)

     A rival innkeeper was William Chandler. Capt. John Osgood made complaint to the Court against him, that he "did
    retail & sell sider or strong drinke without License at his
    Owne dwelling."  Chandler produced evidence that he had a
    license and was acceptable to many of his townsmen, if not
    to all. The proof(3) of his license was as follows:--

          (1) A name used afterwards for the seller of all kinds of merchandise.
          (2) Court Papers vol. x1viii., p. 74.
          (3) County Court Papers, vol. xlvii.
 

 
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 67
 
     "William Chandler Senior is recommended to ye next County
    Court at Ipswich as a ffit man to keep a publick house of entertainment in the town of Andover and until the foresaid Court is licensed to sel Sider, bear, wine and strong liquor by me one of his Majesty's Council of his territory for New England ffebruary ye 2, 1686.                 JONA TYNG."
 
     The proof(1) of his townsmen's good-will, and their wish for
    the success of his inn, is as follows:--
 
     "The humble petition of William Chandler to his Majesty's honoured Court of Sessions for the County of Essex now Sitting in Ipswich this 14 day of September 1687 humbly sheweth:--

     "That whereas your petitioner some time since obtained liberty from one of the Councill to keep a publick house of entertainment and that falling short I mayd my address to his Excellence by some friends who understanding my case induced these gentlemen to wright to the honoured Mr. Gedney and frome him to be communicated to the honoured justices of Salem wherein he did expect they should grant me my License which accordingly they did while this Sessions; for the which I Render them hearty thanks and now I having in some measure fited myself for that worke and agreed with Captain Radford what customs to pay for the yeare, and it being the desier of many of my neighbors I should keep a publick house of enter-tainment as will appear by their subscriptions under their hands and the great complaynt of strangers that there is no house of entertainment upon that rode leading from Ipswich to Balrica and also my own necessity arising in regard of that money I was fined at Salem which I borrowed and have not
    pay’d, all which considerations move to renew my License for this yeare: which will oblige your petitioner for ever as in duty bound to pray.
                                      WILLIAM CHANDLER.

     "Wee whose names are hereunder Righten: doe testifye: that we live upon the Rode at Andover that leadeth from Ipswich and the Townes that way to Baliraca and have often heard strangers much complain that there was no publick house of entertainment upon that Rode, but they must goe a mile and a elfe out of there way or goe without refreshing or else intrude upon privit houses which that neighborhood have found very burdensome. And we doe
 
         (1) County Court Papers, vol. xlvii., p. 56.
 

 

    68   HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    humbly pray that William Chandler Senr. whose house stands convenient may be allowed for that worke
                       JOHN + LOVEJOY, his marke.
                       JOSEPH WILSON
                       THOMAS JOHNSON
                       THOMAS CHANDLER
                       WILLIAM JOHNSON."

     Another petition for Chandler has the signatures of thirty-
    five citizens of Andover; but in 1690 some of his opponents
    sent in the following petition,(1) rather discreditable to their townsman:--
 
                         "FROM ANDOVER ye 28: 1, 1690.
      "To the honered Court now, sitting at Ipswich 31 off this instant March 1690.

     "Wee your most humble petitioners in the name of many more,
    if not of most of the town do make our address to your honors to exert so much of your power and authority as may release us of the matter of our greivance wch is grown so much an epidemicall evill that overspreads and is like to corrupt the greater part of our towne if not speedily prevented by your help: viz to put a stopp, to William Chandler's license of selling of drink, that had been licensed formerly by author-ity: he had Indeed ye approbation of the selectmen that were pickt out for that end in his first setting up: yt were men spirited to give him their approbation to such a thing, and indeed at his first setting up he seemed to have some tender-nesse upon his conscience not to admit of excess nor disorder in his house; but custom in his way of dealing and the earn-
    est desire of money hath proved an evil root to him actively and effectively to others, for through his over forwardness to promote his own gaine he hath been apt to animate and to entice persons to spend their money & time to ye great wrong of themselves and family they belong to; and to that end will encourage all sorts of persons both old and young to spend upon trust, if they have not money, & to some he will proffer to lend them money to spend rather than that they should be discouraged from such a notion; servants & children are allowed by him in his house at all times(2) unseasonable by night and day, sometimes till midnight and past & till break of day, till they know not their way to their

        (1) County Court Papers, vol. l., 74.
        (2) William Chandler was not alone in being complained of for this offence.  Thomas Johnson, a constable, was charged with "allowing a barrel of cider to be drunke in his house at unseasonable hours by young people." One of the town treasurers was before the court for drunkenness and disorderly behavior.  A prominent citizen was presented on a charge of being under the too great influence of liquor, although Mr. Brad-street, the magistrate, termed it "some weaknesse that overtooke him." So we see that strong liquors were not so much "better" than they are now, or the community more temperate.
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 69
 
    habitations, and gaming is freely allowed in his house by which means the looser must call for drink Wch is one thing yt will uphold his calling: Many such pertiklers might be instan-ced and easily proved, but we be willing for brevity's sake to omitt much of what might be said of the like nater, but be sure if he be not restrained from the selling of drink our town will be for the greatest part of our young generation so corrupted thereby that wee can expect little else but a cours of drunkenness of them; and what comfort will that be to parents to see such a posterity coming on upon the stage after them? To this wee whose names are underwritten as your humble petitioners doe attest by our hands hereto.

         CHRISTOPHER OSGOOD     JAMES FRIE
         JOHN FRIE SEN          JOSEPH LOVEJOY
         JOHN FRIE JUN          SAMUEL FRIE
         SAMUEL BLANCHARD       BENJAMIN FRYE
         EPHRAIM FOSTER         SAMUEL ROWELL
         JOSEPH ROBINSON        THOS OSGOOD"

     But the friends of William Chandler had got the start in
    the matter of petitioning, as appears from a record appended
    to this petition: "This petition came not to the viewe of the
    Court untill after another was approved of."

     The "other" referred to was doubtless the following cer-
    tificate to the good order of Chandler's house:--
 
     "William Chandler senr of Andover hath kept a house of pub-
    lick entertainment for some considerable time past & hath kept good order in sd house (soe far as wee are informed) & being an infirm man & not capable of hard Labour & deserving of approbation for his continuance in that employment we cannot but judge him a meet p'son for it & his house convenient for travellers.

     "Dated ANDOVER ye 21st  March 1689-90

                            DUDLEY BRADSTREET
                 Selectmen  THOMAS CHANDLER
                    Of      HENRY HOULT
                  Andover   JOSEPH BALLARD
                            JOHN ABBOT."
 
 
 

    70   HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
     He was granted a license, and in 1692 was permitted by
    the selectmen to continue his house until such time as he
    might be regularly licensed by the Court:--
 
     "These may certifye any that may be concerned that whereas
    the Towne of Andover (by reason of ye change(1) of Government) are destitute of an ordinarie for ye reliefe of strangers &c wee ye subscribers being ye selectmen of Andover aforesaid doe judge William Chandler Senr of sd towne to be a meet person for ye abovesd imployment he having been some years allready imployed in that service & gave good content soe far as we know.

     "Dated Andover ye 29. Aug 1692 att a meeting of y Selectmen
    then and wee doe alsoe order him to entertain strangers &c till ye, Court or such as are appointed doe otherways determine."    [Signed by the Selectmen.]
 
     William Chandler's license is an interesting document, and
    curiously illustrative of the customs of the time and of the
    aspect of things in Andover. It will be noticed that the sign
    of his house was the horse-shoe, chosen, doubtless, from the
    occupation of the Chandlers-- blacksmiths. It was the cus-
    tom then to designate shops, public houses, and places of resort, not by numbers, but by hanging out a sign. A large
    town had a great variety of signs (as was the custom in Eng-
    land), the "anchor," the "bell," the "horse-shoe," etc. The
    only mention found of any such sign at Andover is this of
    the horse-shoe:(2)--
 
     "Know all men by these presents, That we William Chandler
    as principle & Andrew Peters & George Herrick Suretyes do
    acknowledge ourselves to owe & be justly Indebted unto our Sovereign Lord and Lady KING WILLIAM AND QUEEN MARY, their
    Heirs and Successors, for the Support of their Majesties Government here, the sum of Fifty pounds for the true perform-ance of which payment well and truly to be made we bind ourselves and each of us our and each of our Heirs Executors and Administrators firmly by these Presents, Sealed with our Seals, Dated in Salem, this 17 Day of Janry 1692.

     "The condition of this Obligation is such, That whereas the
    abovesaid William Chandler is admitted and allowed by their Maj-
 
          (1) There being in the colony no authority for granting a formal license.
          (2) Files of Court Papers.
 

 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 71
 
    esties justices at a General Sessions of the Peace to keep a common house of entertainment and to use common selling of ale, beer, syder &c till the General Session of the Peace in .... next in the now-Dwelling-house of said Chandler in Andover commonly known by the sign of the horse-shoe and no other, If therefore the said William Chandler during the time of keeping a Publick House shall not permit, suffer or have any playing at Dice, Cards, Tables Quoits, Loggets, Bowles, Ninepins, Billiards or any other unlawful Game or Games in his house, yard, Garden, or Backside; nor shall suffer to be or remain in his House any person or persons not being of his own family upon Saturday nights after it is Dark, nor at any time on the Sabbath Day or Evening after the Sabbath, nor shall suffer any person to lodge or stay in his House above one day and one night; but such whose Name and Surname he shall deliver to some one of the Selectmen or Constables or some one of the officers of the Town unless they be such as he very well knoweth and will answer for his or their forthcoming: nor shall sell any Wine or Liquors, to any Indians or Negroes nor suffer any servants or apprentices or any other persons to remain in his house Tippling or drinking after nine of the clock in the night time; nor buy or take to Pawn any stolen goods, nor willingly harbor in his said House, Barn, Stable or otherwhere any Rogues, Vagabonds, Thieves, nor other notorious offenders whatsoever nor shall suffer any person or persons to sell or utter any ale, beer, cyder &c by Deputation or by colour of this License and also keep the true assize and measure in his Pots, Bread and otherwise, in uttering of ale, beer, cyder, wine, rum &c, and the same sell by sealed meas-ure. And in his said House shall and do use and maintain good order and Rule: Then this present obligation to be void or else to stand in full Force Power and Virtue.
 
     "Signed, sealed and delivered in the presence of
           JONATHAN PUTNAM
           STEPHEN SEWAL.
           WILLIAM CHANDLER
           GEORGE HERRICK
           ANDREW PEETFRS"
 
     Andrew Peters, the bondsman of William Chandler, after-
    ward became innholder on the death of Chandler. He came
    to Andover from Ipswich (as seems probable) between 1686
    and 1692, and had a still-house, and was a "retailer." The
    following record(1) shows these facts:--
 
           (1) Files of Court Papers.
 
 
 

    72   HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
     "This may certifye any that may be concerned yt Mr. Andrew
    Peeters (now an inhabitant in Andover(1) being lately burnt out by ye Indians & put by his husbandry & being a stiller of strong liquors by his calling & having sett up his still-house in ye towne of Andover we the subscribers being ye selectmen of Andover doe desire & judge it a benefit to ye towne yt he may have liberty to retaile his liquor by ye quart out of his owne house to the householders of ye Towne or others which he may think have need of it.  We judging him a man carefull of observing law & good order in those matters.

                     DUDLEY BRADSTREETE
                     JOHN ABBOT         Selectmen
                     JOHN ASLEBE           of
                     SAMUEL FRIE         Andover.
                     JOHN CHANDLER
 
    "ANDOVER ye 21 December 1692"
 
     There is also, later, a petition to the Court for Mr. Peters
    to be innholder, he "being one of the selectmen and our town-treasurer."

     The following names are found among the innholders, licensed:--
 
    Edmond Faulkner              1648 a vintnor
    John Frye                    1654 vintnor
    Lieut John Osgood innholder  1689
    William Chandler      "      1687-1699
    Andrew Peters         "      1700-1713
    Joseph Parker         "      1714
    Joseph Parker 2nd             1715-1723
    John Frye senr               1723
    Joseph Parker 3d             1735
    Capt James Frye              1745
    Timothy Poor was an early innholder also.
 
     These inns were not like those with which the last genera-
    tion was familiar in the days of stage-coaches, and the bustle of the arrivals and departures of the regular coaches, the relays of horses, and all the commotion of the hostlers and the servants, and the important and obsequious host. These
    most ancient inns had no regular arrivals of vehicles or
 
            (1) "Andrew Peters of Ipswich." -- Registry of Deeds "Ipswich," Book I., p. 681.
 

 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 73
 
    guests. The chance-travellers going to and from Salem, Ipswich, Boston, either on horseback or on foot, to attend Court, to go to market, to visit,-- in short, the whole community who went on any errand whatever, must make use of the inn for a greater or less period of time, so that a thriving business was done. The deputies to the General Court, and the other various officers of the Colonial Government, made no small part of the patronage of the inns and taverns. Some of the innholders suffered from the delinquency of their guests in paying their bills. Joseph Armitage, of the Anchor Inn, Lynn, makes a petition concerning "Sum expences at my
    hous by the Honered Magistrates and deputies of this County
    which I never received."  The "honored magistrate" from
    Andover had a small account with Armitage, and also had
    some law-suits against the innholder for indebtedness to him-
    self for goods; for Mr. Bradstreet did a considerable trading
    business in shipping lumber to the Barbadoes and exchanging it for West India goods, which he sold to parties throughout the county. His memorandum of his debts to the Anchor Inn landlord is as follows:--
 
     "Due to Goodman Armitage for beare or wyne att       severall times as I came by in the space of about         three years . . . . . . . . . .   4s.3d"
     "May 15, 1649.

     "More for my man and horse as hee returned home
    the last year when I was a commissioner, hee having
    been delayed on Sabbath day . . . 6s. 3d"
 
     There were unwelcome guests, travellers at this early time
    from town to town,-- vagrants, the prototype of the modern
    tramp. One of these, in 1665, paid a visit to Andover, was
    arrested, and sent to jail; also one John Upton, at whose
    house he spent a night, was tried for harboring him and receiving stolen goods. Thomas Johnson, constable of Andover deposed(1) as follows:--

     "Henry Spencer coming to the house of John Upton the said
    Upton told this deponent that he brought a pack with him to his house, in which was a coate, a rapier, two bibles, a payre of French

          (1) County Court Papers, vol. x.
 
 

    74   HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    fall(?) shoes & other things"-- that "he lay at his house one night & the next day he sett him on the way to Andover & carried his things from his house with him & further this deponent saith that Edward Hutchinson told me that he came to his house the same day in the afternoon without any pack."
 
     The movements of military companies, or of soldiers going
    to join the companies to march against the "Indian enemy,"
    or of scouts and rangers, was also a considerable feature of
    the travelling of the colonial period, and there was no small
    stir and flutter in the domestic inns when the young officers
    with cutlass and halberd and head-piece, musket and pike,
    and the various paraphernalia of the military outfit, arrived
    and tarried for entertainment, and told the tale of their own
    heroism or their comrades' exploits. One such company stop-
    ping at the inn of Joseph Parker, of Andover, were, as tradi-
    tion says, "sumptuously entertained," and a soldier, John
    Varnum, of Dracut, afterward took to himself Miss Phebe
    Parker, the innkeeper's daughter, for his wife; from which
    marriage was descended General Varnum of Revolutionary
    fame.

     It was a not uncommon thing to have marriage ceremonies
    performed at the inn, it being the largest house and most
    convenient for a wedding-party or merrymaking; the relish
    for which festivities the colonists had not all laid aside when they quitted the shores of Old England.

     It was against the too great hilarity that sometimes arose,
    when the "strong liquors" of the inn, or ordinary, had circu-
    lated freely on such bridal occasions among the rustic guests, that the Great and General Court fulminated its edicts, before quoted, prohibiting "dancing in ordinaries on occasions of marriage."

     Apropos of the ancient weddings, the first recorded mar-
    riage of an Andover citizen is that of, the first settler, Edmond Faulkner:--
 
     "Edmond Faulkner and Dorothy Robinson married at Salem by
    Mr. John Winthrop. 4 Feb. 1647-"
 
     George Abbot married Hannah Chandler, sister of Thomas
    Chandler, "at Andover, 1647," says Abbot's "Genealogical
 

 
    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.  75
 
    Register;" but this is not on the town records, and Ellis's
    "History of Roxbury" says that George Abbot married in
    that town Mary or Hannah Chandler. (The Chandlers came
    from Roxbury to Andover.) The first record of a marriage
    ceremony in Andover is in 1653.
 
     "Henry Ingolls & Mary Osgood were married at Andover 6
    July 1653 by Mr. Simon Bradstreet."
 
     It is to be noted that these marriages were made by the
    magistrate, according to the Puritan doctrine that marriage
    is a civil compact, and not a church sacrament. In 1678
    Captain Dudley Bradstreet was appointed by the General
    Court, "to joyne persons together in marriage at Andover
    one or both of whom being settled inhabitants there & being
    published according to law" (that is, in the house of God on
    a day of service). This Puritan custom of "publishing did
    much to throw around the ordinance of marriage the sanctity
    of a religious rite; and moreover, in those times the magis-
    trates were expected to be among the most religious men of
    the community, so that the institution of marriage was by no
    means reduced to that merely secular plane and bare civil
    contract which it is sometimes represented to have been.
    In the most public and solemn manner, before the whole
    congregation, on the Sabbath day, the announcement must
    be made of the intention of marriage, and in a modified form
    this custom of publishing in the house of God continued in
    the town for two hundred years; after the custom of reading
    the names from the pulpit was discontinued, the names of
    the persons intending marriage being posted in the vestibule
    of the meeting-house in a small closet with a glass door, called the "publishing-box."

     The following are the first ten records of marriage in the
    town register:--

1647. Feby 4. Edmond Faulkner & Dorothy Robinson married at
      Salem by Mr. John Winthrop.
1650. Oct. 20. Daniel Pore & Mary Farnum married at Boston by
      Mr. Wiggins.
1651. Jan. 1. John Lovejoy & Mary Osgood(1) married at Ipswich
      by Mr. Simons.
 
          (1) The Osgood family had a branch in Ipswich.
 

 
    76. HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
   1653. July 6. Henry Ingolls & Mary Osgood married at Andover
         by Mr. Simon Bradstreet.
   1653. Nov. 15. John Osgood & Mary Clemants married at Haver-
         hill by Mr. Robert Clemants.
   1654. June 14. Mr. Seaborn Cotton & Mrs. Dorothy Bradstreet
         by Mr. Bradstreet.
   1657. Thomas Johnson & Mary Holt married by Mt. Bradstreet.
   1658. Jan. 6. Thomas Eaton & Unity Singletary married by Mr.
         Bradstreet.
   1658. Apr. 26. George Abbot & Sarah Farnum married by Mr.
         Bradstreet.
   1658. June 12. Nicholas Holt & Hannah Pope widdow.
 
     "Mrs." Dorothy Bradstreet, whose name is here given, was
    the daughter of Mr. Simon Bradstreet. The title "Mrs."
    was simply a term of respect, and had no reference to the
    marriage relation,-- a lady of high social standing, whether
    married or single, being addressed as Mistress, or with the
    abbreviated form Mrs.

     How proposals of marriage were made and preliminaries
    settled in good society, we learn from a statement(1) of Mr.
    Simon Bradstreet, in reference to the marriage of his daugh-
    ter Mercy to Major Nathaniel Wade, of Medford, which took
    place 31st October, 1672:--

     "When Mr. Jonathan Wade of Ipswich came first to my house
    att Andover in ye yeare '72 to make a motion of marriage betwixt his sonne Nathaniell and my daughter Mercy he freely of himself told me what he would give to his sone ..... After he came home hee told several of my Friends & others that hee had offered to give his son better than one thousand pounds and I would not accept of it."

     Notwithstanding these disagreements of the fathers at first,
    they finally came to a mutually satisfactory arrangement of
    terms, and "soe agreed that the young p'sons might p'cede
    in marriage, with both our consents, which they accordingly
    did."

     Another relic(2) is found of the prudence of the elders in
    regard to the worldly prospects of the young persons:--
 
        (1) Essex County Court Papers, vol. x1iii., p. 66.
        (2) Ibid., vol. lii., p. 116.
 

 
 
    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.  77
 
     "The testimony of Thomas Chandler aged about 64 and William
    Chandler aged about 56 (1692) who say: that about tenn years
    since Andrew Allen of Andover junior who was a sutor to Elizabeth Richisson an shee being related to Major Thomas Hinchman and Cap. Josiah Richisson both of Chalmsford they came to Andover to the hous of William Chandler abovesaid and Andrew Allen Senier being present: the foresd hinchman and Richison asked the foresd Andrew Allen Sanier what he would give his sonn for incorridgment for a livelihood and that which he then promised upon the contrict of marriage was: That he would give his hous and land lying about three miles from the town and the meadow belonging to it, and halfe his orchard at hom, and after his and his mothers decease he should have all his house & land, at Town and the home meadow that belong to it."

     The wedding festivities in the great families of colonial
    time were not unattended with display; and the extravagance of the ladies and the varieties of the toilet on these and other social occasions were the subject of comment of writers of the time. The Rev. Nathaniel Ward gave his views of some of the styles of fashionable dress, in plain language:--

      "If I see any of them accidentally I cannot cleanse my phansie of them for at least a month after."
 
     As to the folly of women whose great desire is to "find
    out the latest fashion, and to inquire what dress the queen is in this week," he says:--

     "I look upon her as the very gizard of a trifle, the product of a quarter of a cipher, the epitome of nothing, fitter to be kickt if she were of a kickable substance, than either honored or humored."

     Undoubtedly new fashions and fine clothes found their
    way to Andover as soon as to any of the inland plantations;
    for the Bradstreet family maintained correspondence with
    the nobility of England, and Mr. Bradstreet, often sending,
    had every facility for obtaining as elegant dress as the taste, good sense, and religious principle of his household would permit them to wear. Mrs. Bradstreet was a lady whose
    literary tastes kept her from inordinate love of dress; and
    moreover she was in feeble health, and from principle also
    indisposed to great display.  Still, the relics handed down
 
 
 

    78   HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    in this family show that they had rich furniture and apparel.
    Nor was this in disagreement with the sumptuary laws of the
    Puritans. These were directed mainly against the wearing
    of expensive clothes by unsuitable persons at improper times.
    An act of the General Court, 1651, is as follows (admitting
    the suitability of fine clothing in some cases):--
 
     "Although we acknowledge it to be a matter of much difficul-
    tie to sett down exact rules to confine all sorts of persons, we declare our utter detestation and dislike that men or women of meane condition educations & callings should take uppon them the garbe of gentlemen, by the wearing of gold or silver lace, or buttons or poynt at their knees, to walk in great bootes [leather was very costly] or women of the same rank to weare silk or tiffany hoods,
    or scarfs, which though allowable to persons of greater estates or more liberal education, yet wee cannot but judge it intolerable in p'sons of such like condition .....

     "It is ordered that the selectmen of every towne .... are hereby enabled & required to assesse such persons so offendynge in any of the particulars above-mentioned, but any magistrate or officer their wives and children are left to their discretion in wearynge of apparel."
 
     Mrs. Bradstreet's neighbors thought her too little interested in dress. They criticised her writing so much, and said it would be more becoming in her to use the needle than
    to have her pen always in hand; but doubtless her daughters, on social occasions of importance, when visitors from out of town-- their connections the Dudleys, and their friends
    the Winthrops, and the President of the College, and other
    dignitaries-- were guests, made no little display of elegant
    attire. Brocade and ruff, and lace, velvet, gold lace, point,
    buttons, were not wanting when the Puritan aristocracy were
    gathered to do honor to the wisdom of the magistrate, the
    genius of his poet-wife (the "tenth Muse sprung up in America," as one of the scholars called her), and the beauty and virtues of the daughters. Mr. Simon Bradstreet, when he
    went over to England in 1661, on his mission to the court of
    King Charles II, we may be sure, appeared in the presence
    of royalty in no homespun garb, and it is more than likely
    that he did not return without many a purchase or present of
    the fabrics of the old country for his family.
 

 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 79
 
     But, as has been before said, there were great distinctions
    in dress in the different classes of society. The wardrobe of
    a well-to-do yeoman, a century after Andover settlement, was
    the following:--
 
      "A True Inventoree of ye personal estate of Capt. Samuel Osgood late of Andover  His wearing apparel:--

               A Red coat & Breeches
               A Blue coat & Breeches
               A Dark green coat & Jacket
               An Old white Coat
               A Camlet Coat & Jacket
               2 Fustian Jackets
               1 Blue great coat
               1 Old pr plush Breeches
               1 Fine Linnen Shirt
               3 Cotton       do
               3 old Cotton   do
               3 pr worsted stockings
               2 pr yarn
               2 old Hats
               3 pr old shoes
               5 neck bands
               1 Silke Handkerchief
               2 Walking Staffs
               1 pair shoe buckles."
 
     The termination of one wedding contract of old Andover
    was tragic. "In 1689, died Hannah wife of Hugh_____,(1)
    murdered by her husband April 20, 1689."  In respect to
    this, Savage's "Genealogy" says:--

     "Hugh______ Andover m. 15 Oct. 1667 Hannah Foster perhaps
    d. of Andrew. had John born 1668 and others .... from the
    records we find the death of his wife 2d Apr. 1689 murdered by her husband, whence it is safe to conclude that he was insane."
 
     Cotton Mather, in the "Magnalia," gives a detailed account
    of the execution of one of this name, undoubtedly the same
    man, for murdering his wife, and says that the particulars
    were told him by a minister, who attended the prisoner on
 
         (1) It is not known that there are any descendants in the town, yet to avoid an erroneous connection with names now existing, but not related, the name is suppressed.
 

 

    80  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER
 
    the scaffold. Although such details are not, ordinarily, pleasant or profitable reading, still, forming as this does a part of the famous "Magnalia" of Mather, it cannot properly be
    passed by. The account here presented is much abbreviated:--
 
     "One Hugh______upon a Quarrel between himself and his wife
    about selling a Piece of Land having some Words, as they were
    walking together on a certain Evening very barbarously reached a stroke at her Throat with a sharp knife and by that one stroke fetched away the Soul of her who had made him a Father of several children and would have brought yet another to him if she had lived a few weeks longer in the world. The wretched man was too soon surprised by his Neighbors to be capable of denying that Fact and so he pleaded Guilty upon his Tryal. There was a Minister that walked with him to his execu-tion; and I shall repeat the Principall Passages of the Discourse between them in which the Reader may find or make something useful to himself, whatever it were to the Poor man. who was more immediately concerned in it."
 
     The conversation of the minister with him on the scaffold
    is repeated, in which he inquires if the prisoner is now pre-
    pared to stand before the tribunal of God, and on receiving
    an answer that he having repented of his sin, hopes that he
    is, the clergyman examined him still further to ascertain
    whether he had repented of the sin of Adam, for which said
    he you "deserved to be destroyed as soon as you first came
    into this world."  The prisoner seeming to have doubts, or
    not to be quite clear on this point, the minister instructed
    him and demonstrated that he had broken every commandment of the Decalogue. Going on to inquire what led to this commission of murder, the prisoner made answer:--

     "It was Contention in my Family. I had been used to some-
    thing of Religion, and I was once careful about the Worship of God, not only with my Family but in Secret also, But upon Contention between me and my wife I left off the ways of God and you see what I am come to."

     The prisoner from the scaffold made an address to the
    company:--

     "Young men and maids. Observe the Rule of Obedience to
 

 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.   81
 
    your Parents; and Servants to your Masters, according to the
    Will of God and to do the will of your Masters: If you take up wicked ways, you set open a Gate to sins to lead in bigger afterwards. Thou canst not do anything but GOD WILL SEE thee,
    though thou thinkest thou shalt not be catched .....

     "O young woman that is married and young man, look on me here!  Be sure in that solemn engagement you are obliged to one another.  Marriage is an ordinance of God: have a care of breaking that bond of Marriage Union. If the Husband provoke his wife and cause a Difference, he sins against God and so does she in such carriage; for she is bound to be an obedient wife.

     "0 you Parents that give your children in Marriage remember
    what I have to say. You must take notice when you give them
    in marriage you give them freely to the Lord ..... Here is this murderer; look upon him, and see how many are come with their eyes to behold this man that abhors himself before God .....  There are here a great many young People and 0 Lord that they may be thy servants ..... I will tell you that I wish I never had had the opportunity to do such a murder. If you say when a Person has provoked you 'I will kill him,' tis a thousand to one but the next time you will do it .... "
 
     He then intimates that it was under the effect of strong
    drink that he gave way to his passion:--

     "When thou hast thy bead full of drink, remembrance of God
    is out of thy heart. I have cause to cry out and be ashamed of it, that I am guilty of it because I gave way to that sin more than any other and then God did leave me to practice wickedness and to murder that dear woman whom I should have taken a great deal of contentment in; which if I had done, I should not have been here to suffer this Death."
 
     The author of the "Magnalia" adds this brief description
    of the melancholy end of the life of this first murderer in
    Andover:--
 
     "After this he was by the prayers of a minister then present
    recommended unto the divine mercy, which being done, the poor
    man poured out a few broken ejaculations, in the midst of which he was turned over into the Eternity which we leave him in."
 
     Having now gained a general idea of the mode of life in
    primitive Andover, and an acquaintance with some of its
                    6
 

 

    82   HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    principal citizens, we resume the review of such few memo-
    rials as are found of the other first settlers.
 
     MR. EDMOND FAULKNER was one of the few honored with
    the title "Mr."  He, with Mr. Woodbridge, negotiated the
    purchase of the plantation from the Indians. He was, as
    has been already stated, the first whose name is recorded as
    a licensed vintnor.

     One of his daughters was married to Capt. Pasco Chubb,
    and with her husband was murdered by the Indians.

     His son, Lieut. Francis Faulkner, married Abigail Dane
    (daughter of Rev. Francis Dane), who was accused of witch-
    craft and condemned, but reprieved, and finally saved from
    hanging by the influence of friends, who interposed to check
    the delusion.

     A grandson of Francis Faulkner removed, when a boy,
    with his parents to the town of Acton. He was Col. Francis
    Faulkner, of Revolutionary fame, who led the company to
    the fight at Concord Bridge in 1775, and commanded the
    regiment that guarded General Burgoyne's army when pris-
    oners of war.

     One branch of the Faulkner family settled in the South
    Parish. A recent representative of the name was Joseph
    Faulkner, who, in 1825, engaged with Mr. John Smith (Smith,
    Dove & Co.) in the manufacture of machinery at Andover.
    His son, Joseph W. Faulkner, studied divinity in the Theo-
    logical Seminary, 1838. Abiel Faulkner was a soldier of the
    Revolution and of the War of 1812. There is an ancient
    house on one of the early Faulkner homesteads at North
    Andover, which is said to be more than one hundred and
    seventy years old. It is at Marble Ridge, southeast of the
    homestead of Gen. William J. Dale. It is of quaint con-
    struction, and has been apparently but little changed from its original style. The sloping roof in the rear, the exact southern front, the heavy beams in the ceilings, the huge chimney in the middle of the house, the staircase going up in the front entry to the garret, the little cupboards nicked in at odd corners over the mantel-piece, the small windows high
    above the floor, and other peculiarities of construction indi-
 

 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 83
 
    cate that it belonged to the colonial period. It was last
    owned by Joseph Faulkner. In 1789 his daughter, Dorcas
    Faulkner, was "married by Rev. Mr. Symmes to Mr. John
    Adams Jr." (as the town record's note); "Major" Adams, the
    bridegroom was afterward commissioned. The Faulkner
    estate subsequently was sold to Benjamin Fish, and is now
    owned by an aged couple from Marblehead. With their
    stores of goodies, apples, hickory-nuts, cranberries, etc., gathered about them in kitchen and pantry, their flower-pots of chrysanthemums, and "jelly "-flowers in the window, their
    bird-cage on the floor, and their china and glass-ware set up
    for show in the parlor cupboard, the shelves nicely covered
    with newspapers, the pictured looking-glass, with its battle
    scene of the Constitution and " Guirear," as described by the
    hostess, the ancient house and its occupants seem a relic of
    the old times, veritable genii loci.

     Another Faulkner house is near by, whence emigrated
    Daniel Faulkner to Bluehill, Maine, and Dr. Joseph Faulk-
    ner to Hamilton.
 
     GEORGE ABBOT, Senior, married Hannah Chandler, at an
    early period in the town history. She was sister of Thomas
    Chandler, and daughter of William Chandler, of Roxbury.
    The descendants of George Abbot, Sen., have been very
    numerous and influential. They include, among others, John
    Abbot, deputy to the General Court, 1701; Dea. Isaac Abbot, graduate of Harvard College, 1723; Abiel Abbot, gradu-
    ate of Harvard College, 1737, who died while fitting for the
    ministry; Dr. Abiel Abbot, surgeon in the French and Indian wars; Capt. John Abbot, of the French and Indian
    War, and of the Revolutionary War; Capt. Henry Abbot
    and Capt. Stephen Abbot, in the Revolutionary service;
    George Abbot, Esq.; the three sons of Capt. John Abbot (all
    eminent graduates of Harvard College), namely, Prof. John
    Abbot, of Bowdoin College; Benjamin Abbot, LL. D.,
    Principal of Exeter Academy, and Rev. Abiel Abbot, D. D.,
    minister of Haverhill and Beverly; also, Rev. Abiel Abbot,
    D. D. (native of Wilton, N. H.), author of the "History of
    Andover," 1829; Mr. Henry Abbot, graduate of Harvard
 

 

    84   HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    College, 1796, trader of Andover, father of the late Henry
    W. Abbot, trader; Rev. John. Lovejoy Abbot, graduate,
    1805, and Librarian of Harvard College, and minister of
    the First Church, Boston; Samuel Abbot, Esq., one of the
    founders of the Theological Seminary, and many others of
    honorable name. The manufacturers, Messrs. Abel and Pas-
    chal Abbot, were well known at Andover, 1815-1837.

     The descendants of George Abbot, Sen., on the two hun-
    dredth anniversary of the settlement of the town, erected a
    monument to his memory in the South Church Burying
    Ground.(1)
 
                                   GFORGE ABBOT.
                                  Born in England,
                           Was one of the first settlers
                               of Andover A. D. 1643
                              Where in 1647 be married
                                  HANNAH CHANDLER.
                              He died Dec 1681 aet 66
                             She died June 1711 aet 82
                                 Their descendants
                            in reverence for their moral
                            worth and Christian virtues
                               Erected this monument
                                     A. D. 1843.
 
     The will of George Abbot(2) is noticeable for its tribute to
    the fidelity and virtues of his wife.

     "Considering the great love & affection I beare unto my loving wife Hannah Abbot and also considering her tender love and respect she hath had to me and also considering her care and diligence in helping to gett and save what God hath blessed us withall, and also her prudence in management of the same, I doe therefore leave my whole estate to her & for her use during the time of her naturall life and at her death my will is that with the advice of my overseers .... shall dispose of my estate that her necessity doth not enforce to spend amongst my children." ....

     It was also the will of the father that if "any of the sons
 
          (1) He was buried, doubtless, at North Andover, as there was no other burial place when he died.
          (2) Essex Registry of Deeds, vol. iv., p. 44.
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 85
 
    should be guilty of disobedient carriage "toward their mother, they should be "cutt short" in their portion.

     The "overseers" alluded to were "my loving brothers
    Thomas Chandler & William Chandler & my loving friend
    John Barker."

     The will was signed 12th December, 1681. The inventory
    of the estate was L587 12S. 5d.

     Some facts, culled from the "Genealogical Register," are
    of general interest, showing the marriage connections made
    by the children(1) of George and Hannah Abbot, with the
    sons and daughters of the other first settlers, from which
    unions sprang at least seventy-three grandchildren:--

    John, b. 1648, m. 1673 Sarah, dr. of Richard Barker.
    George, b. 1655, m. 1678 Dorcas, dr. of Mark Graves.
    William, b. 1657, m. 1682 Elizabeth Gray, dr. of Robert(?)
    Benjamin, b. 1661, m. 1685 Elizabeth, dr. of Ralph Farnum.
    Timothy, b. 1663, m. 1717 Mary Foster . . . .
    Thomas, b. 1666, m. 1697 Hannah Gray.
    Nathaniel, b. 1671, m. 1695 Dorcas Hibbert.
    Hannah, b. 1650, m. 1676 John Chandler, son of Thomas.
    Sarah, b. 1659, m. 1680 Ephraim Stevens, son of John.
    Elizabeth, b. 1673, m. 1692 Nathan Stevens, son of John.
 
     The mother of this family, the widow Hannah Abbot, became the third wife of the Rev. Francis Dane. She was, at
    the death of her first husband, fifty-two years of age. There
    is before the writer an original deed of "HANNAH ABBOT alias
    DANE." It is the only deed found in which a woman alone
    conveys real estate. It was made, of course, after the death
    of both her husbands. The paper is as follows:--

     "Know all men by These presents that I Hannah Abbott: alias
    Dane Relick to gorg Abbott late of Andover deceased for the
    natural afectean I bare to my sons: Timothy: Thomas: and Na-
    thaniel Abbott: doe give to my sons: above named: all my rights in the common and undivided land in the Township of Andover aforesaid: which doth or may heareafter belong to the lott of my former husband: gorg Abbott late of Andover deceased: To have and to hold the abovesaid .... [and so forth in legal tautology]
 
          (1) Other children died,-- one infant, Joseph; one son, Joseph, slain by Indians, 1676.
 

 

    86   HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER
 
     "Whereto I have hereunto set my hand and seal: this:10:of
    February:1706-7.
     JOHN CHANDLER
     ABIALL CHANDLER
     HANNAH CHANDLER
 
                                    The mark of
                                  HANNAH (H) ABBOT
                                     Alias DANE
 
     "ESSEX
     "Mrs Hannah Dane the relick of Mr francis Dane personally appeared in andeure this 2d of December 1707: and owned this
    above written Instrument to be Hir voluntary act and deed before me.                       THOMAS NOYES
                                 Justice of the peace. "
 
     John Abbot, the eldest son of the first settler, George Abbot, was the first deacon of the South Church. He died
    1721. He made his will 1716. It and the wills of John
    Abbots, third, fourth, and fifth generation, are in possession of Mr. John Abbot, seventh generation, who lives-on the homestead, and is the seventh John Abbot who has lived
    there. This homestead is in Andover South Parish, on Central Street, west of the South Church. Doubtless George Abbot, Sen., removed thither from his first residence at the
    north part of the town (some time before 1676, if the family
    tradition be correct, that this was the scene of the Indian attack in April, 1676).

     The will of John Abbot gives some particulars respecting
    the mode of life of the wife and mother in early time at And-
    over,-- the "relict," as she is styled:--
 
     "I order my executors to take the whole care to provide for
    their bonoured mother, after my decease. first, she shall have the liberty of which roome she pleases for to live in, and my executors to provide for her sutable clothing of all sorts, for Lining and wooling, and meat, drinke and washing and firewood and candels; the wood to be cut and brought into the house, and phisicke and tendance in case of sickness, and whatever she wants for her comfort so long as she remains my widow if it be to the day of her death, and at her death, I order my executors to give there honored mother a decent and Christian Burial, If she dyes my widow, but if she shall se Reason to marry again then my executors to be free from what I have ordered them to do for her."
 
     One of the daughters, Priscilla, received a portion of the
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.  87
 
    property, for which her receipt (with autograph signature)
    remains:--
 
     "May 5, 1722 Received of my brothers John Abbot & Joseph
    Abbot executors, tow cows and six sheep which was given to me
    by the will of my honered father John Abbot late deceased
                             PRISCILA ABBOT
 
     Priscilla Abbot was never married. She is the first of
    whom any special record remains of the great company
    of "old maids" of Andover. In point of age she stands
    first. At her death, she lacked only a few weeks of being
    one hundred years old. She was born 1691, 7th July; died
    1791, 24tb May. She was of great service as a nurse in
    Andover families. She is described as "mild and meek,
    kind and cheerful, industrious, pious, and contented."

     A grand-niece of this estimable woman, Sarah Abbot,
    daughter of Ephraim Abbot, was another remarkable single
    woman. She was "help" in the family of the Hon. Samuel
    Phillips, North Andover. After his death, she took care of
    the farm,-- raised a nursery of a thousand trees, which she
    grafted and sold profitably. She lived to the age of ninety-
    four (1737- 1831). She was a large, strong woman, as able
    for out-door work as housework. She was blind before she
    died, and being unable to give up her out-door exercise, used
    to walk by a rope.

     The names of these women are not selected as representative of the women of the Abbot family, or of Andover, or as
    models, but simply given as the few which, from their being
    out of the ordinary course of woman's life, have become tra-
    ditional. Those who from choice or necessity stepped aside
    out of the beaten path of woman's dependence are, as a con-
    sequence, conspicuous, while the names of others, many of
    whom were equal in merit, and superior in mental and social
    culture, are lost in oblivion, or are kept only in the unwritten memory of family affection and reverence. The only printed memorial of the mother of Prof. John Abbot, Dr. Benjamin Abbot, and Rev. Abiel Abbot, D. D., is a sentence that she was a woman of "good understanding, sound discretion,
    active benevolence, and unfeigned piety." It is high praise;
 

 

    88   HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    and yet it might, no doubt, truly be said of hundreds of women of this name and of other names who are unknown, because
    the unobtrusiveness of their lives and the custom of the time
    have kept them from finding a record.

     Besides the ancient homestead of George Abbot, Sen., that
    of his son, Timothy Abbot, is of special interest. It is now
    owned by Mr. Asa A. Abbot, and Mr. Sylvester Abbot, who
    hold the original deeds of its transmission from the first occupant. Timothy Abbot was, when a lad of thirteen, carried
    into captivity by the Indians. [See Chapter II.]. Mr. Asa
    A. Abbot, now eighty years old, remembers hearing his great-
    grandmother (who had seen Timothy Abbot) tell the legends
    of his captivity and of his suffering from hunger.
 
     A volume would hardly suffice to trace the descent and the
    topics of historic interest in connection with the Abbot name
    in the line of George Abbot, Senior.
 
     JOHN FRYE was one of the settlers who was of great note
    in his day, and had a posterity of distinguished reputation.
    An ancient manuscript pedigree makes the following sum-
    mary:--

     "Mr. Fry was one of the first settlers in this Towne and his offspring men of Grate Note; there was Copprils, Sergeants, Clarks, Ensignes, Lieuts, Twelve Captains, Magrs, Cornels and Mager Generals, Two judges of the Corts Superer and Court of Common Pleas and two that had the titel of the Honoral Counsellors and severall justices of the Peace and some of the Rest Excelen Good Citizens."
 
     Among the eminent names were Chaplain Jonathan Frye, mort-ally wounded in Lovewell's fight, 1725; Capt. Nathaniel
    Frye, representative, 1743; Col. James Frye and Gen. Joseph
    Frye, of the French War and Revolutionary service; Col.
    Peter Frye, resident in Salem, a Tory and refugee; Hon.
    Simon Frye, who settled in Fryeburg, Me. Mr. Frederick
    Frye was a prominent citizen of North Andover about 1800
    and thereafter. Mr. Enoch Frye now lives on one of the an-
    cient homesteads; the house was built about 1730 by "Great
    John Frye," who weighed three hundred pounds. "Frye
    Village" was named from Samuel Frye (and his descend-
 

 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.  89
 
    ants), owner of a mill there about 1720. Mr. Theophilus C.
    Frye, one of the descendants of Samuel Frye, and son of
    Theophilus Frye (owner of the estate now the residence of
    Mr. John Smith), has written a pedigree of the Frye family.
    Other representatives of the name are Mr. Nathan Frye,
    lately treasurer of the Marland Manufacturing Company;
    Newton Frye, Esq., representative to the Legislature for
    North Andover, 1879.
 
     BENJAMIN WOODBRIDGE. It has been conjectured by some
    persons that this name on the list of first freeholders was an error, and should have been John Woodbridge, the minister.
    But ministers had no house-lot rights, and, moreover, the
    name of, Benjamin Woodbridge occurs on the lists of persons
    assessed for ministers' rates again and again, but with his
    rights or estates credited to another man, "alias Thomas
    Chandler."  This shows that he had left the town. He was
    undoubtedly the distinguished brother of Rev. John Wood-
    bridge, the first graduate of Harvard College, whom Presi-
    dent Dunster called the "most honorable of his class," and
    whom Cotton Mather named "Leader of the Whole Company, A Star of the first magnitude," and of whom Calamy
    says: "He was a great man every way, the lasting glory, as
    well as the First Fruits of that Academy."

     When he graduated from the college there was probably no
    special opening for him that promised better than the new
    plantation which his brother had an interest in, and he, it is not unlikely, at once secured house-lot or acre rights, which he might do by a brief residence. In 1647 he went back to England and resumed his studies at Oxford, where he took
    his second degree. He entered the ministry, and became
    minister of a church in Newbury, England, but he was for
    a time silenced for his non-conformity. He, however, after-
    ward was allowed to continue his office, and he gained a great reputation for learning and eloquence.

     His bouse-lot rights at Andover remained in the possession
    of Thomas Chandler. In 1724, some descendants of the
    Rev. John Woodbridge laid claim to house-lot rights, but
    their claim was disputed by the proprietors, and there is no
    evidence that it was allowed.
 
 

    90  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
     About 1750 there were Woodbridges living in Andover,
    and it is supposed they were descendants of the Rev. John
    Woodbridge. This I have not verified. A private of Ando~
    ver in the Revolutionary service bore the illustrious combination of names, Dudley Woodbridge. This family is still in the town, but, since the departure of the two eminent brothers and ministers, the name has been inconspicuous in the
    town history.
 
     RICHARD BARKER is the only citizen known from the rec-
    ords to have been in the town in 1643. His name is con-
    nected with the first(1) recorded business transaction, and
    hardly any town affair of importance for fifty years is on record which does not bear his name as party or witness, peti-
    tioner, etc. He was prominent in church matters, chosen in
    ecclesiastical committees, was selectman again and again, and
    was entrusted with the administration of many estates. He
    lived near the house-lot of John Osgood, on the north side of
    Cochichawicke. His descendants ultimately settled on their
    farm lands; the several families of Barkers circling almost the entire shore of the Great Pond, on the north, east, and south.

     The son of Richard Barker, John Barker, was one of the
    first deacons of the North Church. Lieut. John Barker was
    quartermaster during the Indian wars. The title is given
    him in the epitaph on his gravestone, 1751.

     Private John Barker, in the battle of Bunker Hill, was the
    hero of his company, and displayed a coolness and bravery
    which have given him a name more honorable than titles.

     A brother of the soldier, John Barker, was the Hon. Ste-
    phen Barker. He was born 1771, died 1849; was representa-
    tive to the General Court seven years between 1812 and
    1824; was a member of the Convention for revising the Con-
    stitution, 1820; and member of the Council, 1825. Others
    of the name, native or resident of Andover, have been Dr.
    Charles Otis Barker, graduate of Harvard College, 1822, a
    physician in Nashua, N. H., and Lynn, Mass.; Mr. John
    Barker, of Michigan City and Chicago (died 1878), who made
    a large fortune in the manufacture of railway cars and in the

          (1) See page 7.
 

 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.  91
 
    grain trade; Jonathan Tyler Barker, an eccentric man of sav-
    ing habits, a peddler and trader, who left a large bequest of
    money to found a free school in Boxford; Mr. Stephen Barker, a graduate of Cambridge Divinity School, 1856, pastor of Leominster, and chaplain in the United States service
    in the War of the Rebellion. Other members of the Barker
    family, in several branches, have been rich and respected
    farmers in North Andover, and their descendants are among
    the young men of influence in the town.
 
     "DANIEL POORE and Mary Farnum were married at Boston, Oct. 20, 1650."  The estates of the Poor family lay along the Shawshin River, at North Andover, on the old road to Lawrence. The house still stands on the right bank of the river, which was occupied by the third generation, from Daniel Poor, and it is said that not far from here was one of the block houses, built in "Shawshin Fields" by order of the Colonial Government in 1704.

     The will(1) and inventory of Daniel Poor were on record
    1689:--

     "In the name off God Amen: I Daniel Poor senr. of Andover
    in the County of Essex in New England Husbandman, being at
    ppsent of a sound mind & memory though very sick of body, &
    considering ye dangerousness of my disease & not knowing how
    soone my great change may be, have thought it meet & doe accordingly make this my last will and testament in manner & form following: ffirst I bequeath & resign my soul unto ye hands of god that gave it & my body to be decently interred in the earth from whence it was taken, in hope & firm assurance of ye pardon of all my sins & of a blessed and happy resurrec-tion through the alone meritt & mediation of my Lord & Saviour Jesus Christ. And as for my worldly goods and outward estate, whether real, personal or mixt, (my just debts & funeral expenses being discharged) I give & bequeathe in manner following.

     Imp. I give and bequeath unto my dear wife Mary my dwelling
    house with all my household stuff & ye one half of my Land on this side Shawshin River both arable land, pasture land & mowing ground, together with my whole stock of neat cattle, sheep, swine & horses. (and alsoe above two thirds of my kort
 
         (1) Essex County Court Papers, vol. xlix., p. 32.
 

 

    92  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
     yard) Barn and corne upon ye ground & what provision I have
     in ye house & what money I shall leave out of this aboves'd estate I would have my aboves'd wife as soon as conveniently she can pay to my daughter Ruth twenty pounds & to my daughter
     Lucy twenty pounds. Confiding in my sd wife that she will deal by them as well as she hath by her other daughters; and after that she will pay all my honest and just debts and receive what is due to me after, I give my sd wife all my husbandrie tackling of what kind or nature soever & after my Dear wife's decease ye abovesaid Land shall goe to my eldest son Daniell.

     Imp. I give to my son Daniell ye other half of my land on this side of Shawshin river (excepting three acres I have given to my daughter Martha which her husband has built upon &
     mostly improved) alsoe a parcell of lowe ground on ye west side of Shawshin river being bounded with the highway & land of John Granger, ye River & ye Common: my sayd son Daniell
     paying within two years after my Decease ten pounds apiece to
     my Daughters, Ruth & Lucy in good merchantable pay att ye
     current price.
 
      Itt. To my son John all my upland with the meadow-
     ground.(1)
      . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
      As for my daughters Mary, Sarah, Hannah, Deborah, they have
     already received their full portions according to intent & ability.

      Itt. I give to my daughter Martha twenty acres of land ....

      Itt. I give to my daughter Elizabeth all the meadow I have in Wade's meadow ....

      Itt. I give to my daughter Priscilla my meadow on the west side of Shawshin River commonly called the Pond meadow.

      Itt. To my daughters Ruth & Lucy who are yet unmarried, I give forty pounds to each of them to be paid as is before exprest.

      Itt. I give to my brother in law Jno ffarnum a Parcell of meadow-- two acres .... on furthest side of Woodchuck meadow...

      Itt. I constitute and appoint my two sons Daniell & John Poor to be my executors, Desiring and commending them according to their ability to be help full unto their mother as her necessity shall require, Hereby making void all former wills or writings of this nature.

     As witness my hand & seal this 1st day of June in the year of our Lord sixteen hundred eighty nine.
 
                                             His mark
                                         DANIEL + POOR

          (1) The will is here abridged, only an outline given to indicate noticeable points.
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 93
 
     "Signed & sealed         DUDLEY BRADSTREET
      in presence of           THOMAS BARNARD
                              CHRISTOPHER OSGOOD.

     "Mr. Dudley Bradstreet, Mr. Tho. Barnard & Christopher Os-
    good made oath in Court att Salem 24th June 1690 that they were present & Saw Daniell Poore signe seall & declare ye above written to bee his last will & testament & yt he was of disposing mind to ye best intent and understanding.

                      Attest BENJ. GERRISH, Clerk."
 
     It is interesting and instructive to compare the inventory
    of this estate of a first settler, who had lived nearly fifty
    years in the town, with the inventories of the two other first settlers who died, the former within ten, the latter within twenty years of the first planting of Cochichawick. The
    third, and latest, is noticeably larger than the two earlier
    ones, and indicates a much greater degree of luxury in house-
    hold furniture:--
 
     Imp.  To apparell & purse,
     Itt.  To bedding & furniture with bedsteads cords & malts,
     Itt.  To a pair of curtains & Vallons,
     Itt.  To bed linen, sheets & pillow beers
     Itt.  To table-linen clothes & napkins & towels,
     Itt.  To 20 yds of new cloth unmade with bed linen,
     Itt.  To Iron pots, brass kettles, trammels tongs &c.,
     Itt.  To chests, boxes, wooden ware, tables chaires &c,
     Itt.  To arms & ammunition,
     Itt.  To flax, hemp, wool, feathers, & other things
            overlooked,
     Itt.  To books,
     Itt.  To provision, wheat, rye, Indian corn &c,
     Itt.  To mowing grass,
     Itt.  To husbandry, tackling, old iron, boards &c,
     Itt.  To stock of cattle, horses, sheep & swine,
     Itt.  To Housing, barns & kort yard,
     Itt.  To about 100 acres of upland, mowing ground and
            pasture
     Itt.  To about an hundred acres of wilderness Land,
     Itt.  To meadowe at Woodchuck meadowe,
     Itt.  To meadowe over Shawshin river,
     Itt.  To meadow part of his last Division,

              Sum Total  L756. 14s. 8d.
 

 

    94   HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
     Among the principal names of this family were the distin-
    guished officers of the Revolution, Col. Thomas Poor, of
    Andover (North) and Methuen, and Gen. Enoch Poor, of
    Exeter, N. H., a native of North Andover. Others of con-
    siderable local influence were Dea. Daniel Poor, a wealthy
    farmer of Andover (South Parish), owner of the "Captain
    Perry House,"(1) Andover, which he built for his residence;
    Dea. Joseph Poor, who lived at Danvers, father of the Rev.
    Daniel Poor, D. D., one of the early missionaries to India;
    the late Mr. Henry Poor, merchant, of New York, some time
    resident of North Andover. George H. Poor, Esq., trial
    justice, Andover, attorney and counsellor at law, Boston;
    Mr. Albert Poor, graduate of Harvard College, 1879, and many
    others of the name are well-known and respected citizens.
    In the present city of South Lawrence, the "Shawshin
    Fields," during the Revolutionary time, Mr. John Poor was
    a large landholder and a man of influence. In that region,
    in the pre-revolutionary time, lived Timothy Poor, innholder,
    and after the Revolution, down to 1800 or thereabouts,
    Ebenezer Poor and Benjamin Poor kept the inn known sub-
    sequently as the "Shawsheen House." Capt. Stephen Poor
    had a fulling mill about 1800, at the mouth of the Shawshin
    River.
 
     NICHOLAS HOLT was a town officer of some note, and a
    man of considerable estate, yet he oftener made his mark than
    wrote his name, although there is one instance found when
    he with difficulty signed his autograph to a petition. An
    original deed is before me by which, in 1680, he conveyed
    about twenty acres of upland to his son-in-law, in considera-
    tion of the
 
     "Naturall Love and affection I bear unto my daughter Sarah
    not long since married unto Roger Marks." &c.
                                       his
                               NICHOLAS H HOLT.
                                       mark
 
     This settler was, however, the progenitor of a line of de-
    scendants noticeable for their attention to learning. The

        (1) Central Street, now owned by Mr. Lyman A. Belknap.
 

 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.  95
 
    Holt family includes four college graduates prior to 1800:
    Joseph Holt, son of Timothy, graduate H.U. 1739, teacher
    of the Andover Grammar School; Rev. Nathan Holt, grad-
    uate H.U. 1757, minister of Danvers; Moses Holt, graduate
    H.U. 1767, trader at Portland; Rev. Peter Holt, son of
    Joshua Holt, Esq., graduate H.U. 1790, minister, Epping,
    N. H.; also, in 1813, Jacob Holt, son of Dane Holt, graduated
    at Dartmouth College, and ordained at Brookline, N. H.

     During the Revolution, Joshua Holt, Esq., commanded a
    company of minute-men, April 19, 1775; was representative
    to the General Court fifteen times between 1776 and 1800,
    and several times thereafter, was justice of the peace and
    deacon of the South Church thirty-four years. His home-
    stead is south of the West Parish Meeting-house. His son,
    Solomon Holt, was among the first deacons of the West
    Church, and was succeeded in office by his son, Dea. Sol-
    omon Holt, now in the fiftieth year of his office, and in the
    eighty-first of his age.

     The Holt family, in all its branches, is very large, and in-
    cludes many names of considerable influence in town affairs.
    The most ancient dwelling-house, now disused, was the resi-
    dence of the late Mr. Dean Holt (owned by Mr. Ballard
    Holt), on Holt's Hill, sometimes called Prospect Hill,
    Andover. There is a tradition that it was the dwelling-
    house of Nicholas Holt, the first settler, or that it was
    built more than two hundred years ago. Its style of con-
    struction does not correspond with that of the houses known
    to have been of that age in the town; but there is little
    doubt that Nicholas Holt lived, if not in this house, on this
    homestead at some period. In the beginning he, like all
    the first householders, dwelt on one of the house-lots at
    North Andover; but from a paper found among the manuscripts of the Abbot family (with which the Holts intermarried), it appears that in March, 1675, the land around the house of Nicholas Holt had not been laid out, and that it was not one of the original four- or eight-acre lots bounded by
    the house-lots of other settlers. The presumption is that
    he had then built a house out of the village on his farm
    lands; and it is not unlikely that he and George Abbot, Sen.,
 

 

    96   HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    and other settlers, took up their abode about the same time
    in the south part of the town. The clause in the paper in
    regard to the highway "going up" to his house is an unusual
    form of expression in the ancient descriptions, and seems to
    imply a height of land, and to point to this ancient home-stead as the one referred to. The following is the paper:--

     "We whose Names are under-written being desired and deputed
    by ye Town of Andover To state or New Marke Nicholas holts
    senr his Land about his house, we have agreed and stated the
    Bounds as under-written (viz) The Southwest corner in the fence there is a walnut tree marked; from Thence we Run upon a
    straight Line to a white Oak Tree upon a straight Line To a white oak marked with H: which we judge to be near an Easterly Line from ye white Oak marked with H. To a Black Oak marked
    which Line is southerly: from that Black oak we Ran westerly
    To a black oak standing in ye fence Near the highway going up
    to his house and from Thence to the First named Walnutt: as the fence Now standeth and To these our agreement we have sett To our hands y 8 off 1st month 1674-5
     "Vera Copia out of Andover Book of Records for Land.
                      CHRISTOPHER OSGOOD Clerk."
 
     At the ancient dwelling-house now standing on the estate,
    Mr. Bache, of the Coast Survey, spent some weeks to obtain
    outlines of the coast, the view from the hill being one of the most extensive in the vicinity. This hill is said to have been, on the 7th of June, 1775, thronged with citizens, anxiously watching the flames of Charlestown.
 
     THOMAS CHANDLER and WILLIAM CHANDLER stood among
    the most influential of the first settlers. They were brothers, sons of William Chandler, of Roxbury. Their sister Hannah was the wife of George Abbot, Sen., and of the Rev. Francis Dane. There were four different representatives to the General Court of the Chandler name in the first century of the
    town history,-- Ensign Thomas Chandler, 1678; Captain
    Thomas Chandler, 1690; Captain John Chandler, 1704; Mr.
    Thomas Chandler, Jr., 1735. The descendants(1) of the Chand-
 
          (1) A Genealogy, written by Dr. Chandler of Worcester, is a work of great research, and in many parts of graphic interest.
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.  97
 
    ler name, in Andover and in other towns of the State, have
    been numerous and honorable.

     Thomas Chandler-- the representative, 1678-- was a black-
    smith, ultimately a rich man, carrying on considerable iron
    works, of which he makes mention in his will, giving to each
    of his sons a fourth part of his share in the iron works. It
    is traditional, though not authenticated, that these works
    were on the Shawshin, at or near the present site of Marland
    village.

     There is before the writer an original deed of the first settler, Thomas Chandler, which has been kept in the family of
    the "party" to whom it was given. Thomas Chandler wrote
    a quite handsome hand, but his wife made "her marke."
    This deed classes him as yeoman. It conveys to John Abbot,
    "for nine pounds currant money, one end of a meadow com-
    monly called Beaver dam meadow lying in the bounds of
    Andover about six miles southward from the Towne of And-
    over and contayneth about six Akers be the same more or
    less bounded south west with the meadow of Joseph Balard
    and a beaver dame, east with Oburne lyen" (and so on, the
    other bounds being marked trees). This deed is dated No-
    vember 25, 1684.

     William Chandler, brother of Thomas Chandler, kept an
    inn on the Ipswich road to Billerica. His troubles with some
    of his townsmen have been previously related. Thomas
    Chandler's son Thomas was likewise representative to the
    General Court. The Chandlers were military men of consid-
    erable local fame in the Indian wars, Captain Thomas Chand-
    ler doing some service in scouting.

     Ensign John Chandler was famous for his athletic prowess
    and strength. He was a great wrestler, and loved to chal-
    lenge to the contest any one who boasted of skill in this art, formerly so fashionable. But he met his match in the Rev.
    Mr. Wise, of Ipswich, who, at first declining the contest as
    improper for his profession, at last yielded, and, taking his
    opponent off his guard, with a "trip and a twitch," threw
    him high over the garden wall, which was built against an
    embankment.

     Another story, which has some elements of improbability,
                7
 

 

    98   HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    is that, having been impressed for military duty in the king's service in the French and Indian wars, he was walking beside the officers on his way to the place of rendezvous, when, coming to a cellar of a house which had been burnt, and
    where the ashes were still smoking, he seized and threw into
    the hole the two officers of guard and went his way. This(1)
    Ensign or Captain (afterward) John Chandler settled at Con-
    cord, N. H.

     One of the ancient homesteads of the Chandlers, con-
    nected with names of note, is in the West Parish, northeast
    of the Meeting-house, owned by Mr. Joshua Chandler. It
    is now of large extent, and was anciently larger, including
    the estate of the late Mr. Joseph Chandler. The Chandlers
    were regardful of education, some of them in their will mak-
    ing provision for the liberal education of their sons at "the
    college." In the first century of the town history there were
    three graduates of Harvard College, ministers, of the Chand-
    ler name, all of whom were of some considerable note in
    their time: Rev. James Chandler graduated 1728, settled at
    Rowley; Rev. Samuel Chandler graduated 1735, settled at
    York, Me.; Rev. John Chandler graduated 1743, settled at
    Billerica.

     Other names of more or less note are Philemon Chandler,
    conspicuous in town affairs during the Revolutionary war;
    Capt. Joshua Chandler, representative to the Legislature,
    1817 (whose homestead was the one mentioned in the West
    Parish, north of the Meeting-house). Among his sons were
    Mr. John Chandler, of the firm of Chandler & Co., dry goods
    merchants, Boston, and Mr. Nathan Chandler, of the firm of
    Monroe & Chandler, bankers, New York.  Mr. Joseph Chandler, Jr., son of Joseph Chandler, (the owner of a part of the
    ancient West Parish homestead), died in the United States
    service, at Ship Island, 1861, a young man of great promise.
    The family is large, and has many other locally influential
    names, besides a wide connection of distinction in other
    towns.
 
            (1) Such seems to be the statement of the genealogist. Possibly it was a son of Ensign John Chandler.
 

 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 99
 
     JOHN LOVEJOY and Mary Osgood, of Ipswich, were mar-
    ried 1651. Their son, William Lovejoy, settled in the South
    Precinct, and was one of the first deacons of the South
    Church, 1711. There are sixty members of this name on
    the lists of the South Church before the West Parish was
    set off. The name has been perpetuated chiefly in the South
    and West Parishes. The families there have been among
    the good yeomanry, upholders of order, sobriety, and religion.  In the west part of the town, the homesteads of Deacon John Lovejoy, Deacon Ballard Lovejoy, and the late Deacon Ebenezer Lovejoy, are within a short distance of each other, about a mile west of the Meeting-house. Among the conspicuous names of this family were Capt. Nathaniel Lovejoy, in the Revolutionary period, and his son, Gen. Nathaniel Lovejoy, a graduate of Harvard College 1766, a trader at North Andover; also Capt. William Lovejoy, of Andover (South). Among the emigrants from the town were the late Deacon William R. Lovejoy, East Boston, and the late Mr. Joseph Lovejoy, founder of the firm of Lovejoy & Sons, carpet merchants, Boston. The ancient homestead of Deacon Ebenezer Lovejoy is now owned and occupied by Mr. Isaac Carruth.  Some of the family papers show the transmission of estates from the year 1692. In 1876 the widow of James Lovejoy, mother of Dea. Ballard Lovejoy, died, in her one hundredth year, in remarkable possession of her faculties of mind and body.
 
     ANDREW FOSTER, the first, as it seems, of the many of this
    name in Andover, died 1685, aged 106, or thereabouts. His
    will leaves to his "deare and loving wife Ann Foster the use
    & sole liberty of living in that end of my house I now live
    in."  This aged woman ended her days in Salem jail, under
    condemnation for witchcraft. Abraham Foster, son of the
    above, had estates in the southwest part of the town, and,
    either from him or from his father, Foster's Pond probably
    received its name. A deed dated 1721, signed Abraham Fos-
    ter, Junior, conveys land on the southerly side of Foster's
    Pond, from the "great Ridg and Reeding medow and to
    Nod line to a littel Brook that Runs into foster pond."
 

 
 

    I00 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
     The name of Foster in the Andovers has sprung from several sources, and to trace their origin and descent would be a
    work of much genealogical research.

     One of the prominent names in the early town history was
    Ephraim Foster. He was a grandson of Reginald Foster, a
    citizen of Ipswich of some consideration, and who is said by
    genealogists to have been descended from an ancient family
    of Forster mentioned by Walter Scott in his tales and ballads
    of Scottish border warfare. Ephraim Foster was a man con-
    spicuous in the town matters of Andover, although not con-
    nected prominently with the military or the civil history. He
    seems, judging from the numerous documents in his hand-writing, to have excelled as a scribe, and to have been versed
    in the art of punctuation, then little known to the majority of our town officials. His favorite point was the colon, with which his papers are plentifully besprinkled, without regard to the grammatical or rhetorical construction. This character-istic appears in the "Proprietors' Records," where his hand-writing occurs.(1)

     Some of the family estates were in the east part of North
    Andover. On one of the ancient homesteads (that afterward
    occupied by J. M. Hubbard, Esq., and noted for the large and
    beautiful elm tree, still vigorous) was born one of the most
    eminent of the natives of North Andover, the Hon. Jedediah
    Foster, son of Ephraim Foster. After graduating at Harvard College, 1744, he studied law and settled in Brookfield,
    was prominent as a statesman before the Revolution, and a
    distinguished patriot in the Revolutionary struggle. He was
    justice of the Court of Common Pleas and of the Superior
    Court. He died 1779. The names of his descendants have
    been among the most honored, and of national reputation.
    His son was the Hon. Dwight Foster, of Brookfield, United
 
         (1) The following record in his handwriting, which is remarkably clear and legible, illustrates this peculiarity:-- "At a Lawfull metting of the proprietors of the town of Andover: on the 21: day of desember: 1714: By virtue of a warrant from Collonal Samuell Appleton Esquier one of his majesties: justises of the peece for the county of Essex ... Ephraim ffoster was chosen the proprietors clerke: for ye year ensuinge: or untell Another: is chosen and sworne in his Rome And was then sworne: Before: Joseph: Woodbridge Esquire:" etc.--Prop. Rec. i. p.8.
 

 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS    101

    States Senator, who died 1823. His grandson is the Hon.
    Dwight Foster, of Boston. Of the Ephraim Foster line of
    connection are Moses Foster, Esq., cashier of Andover Bank,
    and Mr. David Foster, sometime mayor of Beloit, Wisconsin,
    sons of Mr. Moses Foster, the well-known innkeeper of North
    Andover fifty years ago.

     Other representatives of the Foster name in North Andover were Rev. Stephen Foster, son of John Foster, a graduate of Dartmouth College, 1821, a home-missionary and teacher in the Southern States, and afterward resident in North Andover; and Isaac Foster, graduate of Dartmouth College, 1828. Mr. Daniel Foster and Mr. John Foster were traders of North Andover many years. The latter, now living, was also postmaster. The name is now represented by some of the most enterprising farmers in the town, among them, especially, Mr. John Plummer Foster has an excellent farm, formerly owned by his father, Dea. Charles Foster, near the Great Pond, and is well known in local affairs.

     The homestead of Daniel Foster, Dr. Simon Foster, and
    their three sisters (on the north side of the Great Pond) was, at the death of the last sister, about sixteen years since, by mutual bequest left to be sold for the benefit of the Andover Theological Seminary and Missionary Societies. It is now owned by the Hon. William A. Russell, of Lawrence, who
    has enlarged and improved it at a great outlay of money and
    labor, so that it is now one of the finest and most noted farms in the county.

     William Foster, of Rowley village (Boxford), also a descend-ant of Reginald Foster, in 1678 removed to North Andover, and subsequently to the west part of the town.  Among his descend-ants were the brothers, Capt. Asa Foster, of the French War service, and Ensign John Foster, active patriots of the Revolution. A son of Capt. Asa Foster was Rev. Abiel Foster, minister of Canterbury, N. H., 1761, who entered into politics and became celebrated in his adopted State, was appointed Justice of the Court of Common Pleas, and elected member of the United States Congress. One of the homesteads of this family was not far from the West Meeting-house,-- near the present residence of Mr. Charles Shat-
 
 
 
 

    102 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    tuck,-- where an inn or public house was kept. Of this line
    of descent-- grandson of Capt. John Foster-- was Mr. William Foster, who kept a boarding-school for boys in Andover,
    South Parish, about 1794-1817, and who was father of the
    late William P. Foster. Other well-known citizens of the
    name were Capt. Thomas C. Foster, proprietor of the Eagle
    Hotel, and representative to the Legislature, 1838, and his
    son, Rev. Thomas E. Foster, a teacher in Phillips Academy.

     Among others of the name now prominent in Andover are Hon. George Foster, editor of the "Andover Advertiser" department of the "Lawrence American," and his son, George W. Foster, Esq., town clerk; Mr. William H. Foster, connected with the Boston Public Library, and Mr. Joseph W. Foster, son of Capt. Thomas C. Foster, merchant of Boston.
 
     WILLIAM BALLARD was a considerable land-owner, though
    not so much in public offices as some of the first settlers.
    His son, Joseph Ballard, was constable in 1688, and has the
    fame of bringing the first charge of witchcraft against Andover citizens. Joseph and John Ballard were the first who
    started a fulling-mill in Andover. The Ballard mill is often
    mentioned in the ancient records. Timothy Ballard was a
    large land-owner about 1790, in the district afterward named
    the Ballardvale.

     Hezekiah Ballard was an innkeeper of Revolutionary time.
    Some of the Ballard descendants, emigrants from Andover,
    have engaged successfully in manufactures.
 
     JOSEPH PARKER and NATHAN PARKER were citizens of
    much consideration. Joseph Parker owned a tannery and
    had a corn-mill. His property was apprized at "546 pounds
    sterling, the dwelling-house 68 pounds, the corn mill on the
    Cochichawick 20 pounds."  In 1678 he made his will(1) ("con-
    sidering my great age and infirmity"), appointing as overseers of it "my loving brother Nathan Parker, my loving friend Left. John Abbot, my loving friend Henry Ingalls, and loving friend Ensigne Thomas Chandler."  After bequests to
    his sons, Stephen, Samuel, and Thomas, he makes bequests

           (1) County Court Papers, vol. xxx., p. 24.
 

 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 103
 
    to Mary, Sarah, and Ruth, his daughters, and "to my deare
    wife (Mary) I give all my estate in old England, that of Rumsey and any legacies left me by friends."  Afterward the son petitions that he may be allowed to take charge of money
    come from England to his mother, as she was incapable "of
    managing it by reason of distemper of mind."  The name
    of Mary Parker is that of one of the Andover women hanged
    for witchcraft in 1692, and there is a probability that she was the same person here alluded to, and that her mental dis-
    order tended to heighten the public belief in her complicity
    with evil spirits-- in practising witchcraft.

     Joseph Parker, 2d, to whom the corn-mill was left, made
    his will(1) in 1684. He was a carpenter. His property was
    apprized at 402 pounds sterling; the mill at 100 pounds.
    He bequeathed it absolutely, with every part, "to my deare
    and loveing wife Elizabeth till my only child Joseph shall
    come to the age of twenty-one years."  He was an innholder,
    as was also his son, Joseph Parker, 3d. The latter was representative to the General Court.

     Capt. James Parker and Capt. Peter Parker, sons of Joseph
    Parker, 3d were prominent citizens and officers in the French
    and Indian War.

     Mr. Isaac Parker kept a public house at North Andover,
    about 1800.

     Nathan Parker, first settler, had not a large estate, yet he
    seems to have been a man of some consequence. He drew up a great many papers, as, for instance, that of the apprentice Job Tyler before alluded to. He may have been a professional scrivener; there were men of this trade or profession in the colonies, and although their learning, or technical skill, might give them some advantage, they would not be likely to get riches in a small country town. Whether or no Nathan Parker was a writer, he was not a reader, or owner of many books. His inventory(2) has the following items:  "Bridle, sadle, and pillion, pewter, glass bottles and bookes," --all valued at two pounds.  The entire inventory amounted to 148 pounds sterling.
 
           (1) Court Papers, vol. x1ii., p. 56.
           (2) Court Papers, vol. xxxi., p. 95.
 

 

    104 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
     Two sons of Nathan and Mary Parker were killed by the
    Indians at Scarborough. Nathan Parker left his whole estate
    to his wife, "for the education and bringing up of Mary ye
    daughter of ye deceased til she come of age & then she is
    to have half the estate."  The unusual circumstance of men-
    tioning the education of a daughter would imply, on the part
    of the father, a special interest in learning.

     The name of Parker has been connected prominently with
    Boxford Parish, members of which were residents of North
    Andover.  Among these, Capt. Asa Parker, deacon of the
    Second Church, was a prominent citizen during the Revolu-
    tionary period.
 
    ROBERT BARNARD, the first settler, had a house-lot and
    dwelling near Mr. Simon Bradstreet's.  Stephen Barnard
    was a weaver. The descendants removed to the west part
    of the town, and the ancient Barnard estates lay along the
    Merrimack River.

     Robert Barnard, a grandson of the first settler, had a law-
    suit with the Proprietors of Andover for some years, 1715-
    1720. The following is the first mention made of it in the
    "Proprietors' Records":--
 
     "At a lawful meeting of the Proprietors of ye common and
    undivided Lands in Andover on the 27: day of June 1715 Capt.
    George Abbot was chosen moderator for said meeting.

     "Voatted and passed to chuse agents or attornies to defend our wrights against Robert Barnard Administrator to the estate of his grandfather Robert Barnard formerly of Andover desest at the next Inferer Court of Common pleas to be holden at Salem the Last Tuesday of June Currant for the County of Essex.

     "Capt. James Frie, Mr. John Ames and Mr. William Foster was
    chosen agents and attornies for the proprietors of Andover for the Service abovesaid to defend their Rights from Cort to Cort."
 
     The Barnard name has not in this line of descent ever
    been prominent in the town history, though the citizens have
    been men of some local note in their places of abode. The
    oldest representative of the name now living in Andover is
    Mr. Osgood Barnard, of the West Parish, aged eighty. He is an old-fashioned shoemaker, and in his neat little shop in

MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS   105
 
    the front yard of his comfortable dwelling-house, seated on his bench, surrounded by the various implements of his craft, all in perfect order, he receives with simple dignity his visitors, and talks with more good sense on current topics and past events than some men talk who wear broadcloth and sit with dignitaries in seats of honor. On the shelf above his bench is a small but well-read pile of books, ancient school-readers, old memoirs, hymn-book, and the Bible. The village mail has sometimes been sent here for distribution, so that the shoemaker is also a sort of postmaster. If Andover had a Mr. Long-fellow the little shop and its owner might have found an immortality like that of the village smithy under the spreading chestnut tree.

     The name of Barnard is among those locally well known
    in several parts of Andover. The name is in some of the
    branches continued, probably by descendants of the Rev.
    Thomas Barnard; but in none of the lines of descent has
    it attained eminence in the town history since the colonial period.
 
     ANDREW ALLEN was constable at an early day in Andover. He had a son, Andrew Allen, whose suit to Elizabeth
    Richardson and his father's "incorridgement for a liveli-
    hood" have been already described.(1) There is before me
    an original deed, given by this Elizabeth Allen after her husband's death,-- one of the few in which a woman is the principal. In this deed the widow, jointly with the children, gives the quitclaim.
 
     ".... Elizabeth Allen Relect of Andrew Allen, and Elizabeth, Andrew and Sarah Allen .... all of us Relect and cheldren of
    Andrew Allen .... know yee that wee ye said Elizabeth and my three children Elizabeth Andrew and Sarah Allen &c" [after this and other repetition supposed to be needful to legal dignity, the main fact is arrived at] "for eighty nine pounds we the abovesaid .... granted, Remised, Released and quit claimed to Ephraim Abbot their part share and dividend of that Meseuage or Tennament where ye abovenamed Andrew Allin formerly lived, contain-
    ing about twenty two acres in the homestead .... and ...
    (other land) near Flaggy Meadow."

            (1) Page 77.
 
 
 

    106 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
     Four red wax seals, with an elaborate stamp,-- an S and a star, and other emblems, are appended to the document, and the marks of the widow and the daughters, and the autograph of the son:--
 
             her
    ELIZABETH X ALLEN.  [Seal.]
            marke
               her
    ELIZABETH  E A  ALLAN. [Seal.]
              marke
    ANDREW ALLIN.    [Seal.]
          her
    SARAH S A ALLIN.[Seal.]
          mark
 
     The daughter of Andrew Allen, Sen. (first settler), was
    married to Thomas Carrier, and was hanged for witchcraft.

     Another daughter, married to Roger Toothaker of Bill-erica, was murdered by the Indians.
 
     Of the other first settlers on the list, the following are said(1) to have had no descendants in the town fifty years ago: Henry Jacques, Richard Blake, Thomas Poor, John Russ, John Aslet.

     The will of John Aslet is preserved in the "County Court
    Papers" (vol. xvii., p. 105).
 
     "The last wil & Testament of me, John Aslet upon the 15th day of the third month 1671, being in perfect memory blessed be the Lord.
                                JOHN A ASLET."
                                  his marke
     FRANCIS DANE.    witnesses.
     ALEXANDER SESSIONS.
 
 
     The family names in the first list of freeholders, which
    have now all been referred to, are as follows: Abbot, Allen, Aslet, Ballard, Barker, Barnard, Blake, Bradstreet Chandler, Faulkner, Foster, Frye, Holt, Jacques, Lovejoy, Osgood, Parker, Poor, Russ, Stevens, Woodbridge.

     In the year 1678 all the male citizens(2) in each town were
 
       (1) Abbot's History, 1829.
       (2) Not alphabetically arranged in the original. Registry of Deeds, "Ipswich," Book IV. Those surnames marked * are not in the first list of freeholders. It will be noticed that the name Sutton does not appear on either this list or the foregoing,-- the arrival and removal of Richard Sutton being between the two dates. Mr. Woodbridge was also removed before 1678.
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 107
 
    ordered to take the oath of allegiance to the king. The following is the list of names recorded for the town of Andover.--
 
     "A List of all the Male Persons in Andover from sixteen years old that took oath of Alegance ffebruary 11, 1678."
 
    Abbot, George, Senr.
    Abbot, George, Junr.
    Abbot, George, tailor.
    Abbot, John.
    Abbot, John, Junr.
    Abbot, Thomas.
    Abbot, William.
    Abbot, Benjamin.
    Allen, Andrew, Senr.
    Allen, Andrew, Junr.
    Allen, John.
    Aslett, John.
   *Balden, Titus.
    Ballard, William, Senr.
    Ballard, William, Junr.
    Ballard, Joseph,
    Ballard, John.
    Barker, Richard, Senr.
    Barker, Richard, Junr.
    Barker, Ebenezer.
    Barker, John.
    Barker, Stephen.
    Barker, William.
    Barnard, Stephen.
   *Bigsbie, Daniel.
   *Blunt, William.
    Bradstreet, Mr. Dudley.
   *Brewer, Thomas.
   *Bridges, John.
   *Carlton, John.
    Chandler, John.
    Chandler, Ens. Thomas.
    Chandler, William, Senr.
    Chandler, William, Junr.
    Chandler, Wm., son of Tho.
   *Dane, Francis.
    Dane, Francis, Junr.
    Dane, Nathaniel.
   *Eirres, Zecharias.
   *Farnum, John.
    Farnum, Ralph, Senr.
    Farnum, Ralph, Junr.
    Farnum, Thomas.
    Faulkner, Mr. Edmond.
    Faulkner, John.
    Foster, Andrew, 101 yrs. old.
    Foster. Ephraim.
    Frie, John.
    Frie, John, Junr.
    Frie, Samuel.
    Frie, James.
   *Gray, Robert.
   *Gutterson, John.
    Holt, Nicholas, Senr.
    Holt, Nicholas, Junr.
    Holt, James.
    Holt, Samuel.
    Holt, Henry.
    Holt, Daniel.
   *Hutchinson, Samuel.
   *Ingalls, Henry, Senr.
    Ingalls, Henry, Junr.
    Ingalls, John.
    Ingalls, Samuel.
   *Johnson, Thomas.
    Johnson, John.
    Johnson, Stephen.
    Johnson, Returne.
    Johnson, William.
   *Kempe, Samuel.
   *Lacey, Lawrence.
    Lovejoy, John, Senr.
    Lovejoy, John, Junr.
    Lovejoy, William.
    Lovejoy, Christopher.
   *Marble, Samuel.
    Marble, Jacob.
    Marble, Joseph.
   *Marston, John, Senr.
    Marston, John, Junr.
    Marston, Jacob.
    Marston, Joseph.
   *Martin, Samuel.
   *Nichols, Nicholas.
    Osgood, Left. John.
    Osgood, Christopher.
    Osgood, John, Junr.
    Osgood, Stephen.
    Osgood, Thomas.
    Osgood, Timothy.
    Parker, Joseph.
    Parker, Nathan.
    Parker, John.
   *Phelps, Edward, Junr.
    Poore, Daniel, Senr.
    Poore, Daniel, Junr.
    Poore, John, Junr.
   *Preston, John.
    Preston, Samuel.
   *Robinson, Joseph.
   *Russell, Robert.
    Rust, John, Senr.
    Rust, John, Junr.
   *Salter, Henry.
   *Sessions, Alexander.
    Stevens, John.
    Stevens, Nathan.
    Stevens, Ephraim.
    Stevens, Benjamin.
   *Stone, Hugh.
   *Wardwell, Samuel.
   *Wilson, Joseph, Senr.
    Wilson, Joseph, Junr.
   *Whittington, Edward.
   *Wright, Walter.
 

     Following are some brief memoranda respecting the family names on the above list which did not appear on the list  of first freeholders. These, however, are merely outlines, nei-
 
 
 
 

    108 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    ther biographies of individuals nor genealogies of families, but merely collections of such scattered relics and records as have been found of these early settlers, with some notes to indicate the comparative perpetuity and influence of the several families.

     The Abbot line had other founders than George Abbot, Sen., already named,-- there being two or three settlers at an early day of this name. The principal one of these
    was "George Abbot, tailor," as he is often designated. He
    was from Rowley in 1655. He died 1689, leaving a large
    family of children and a widow. The latter was subse-quently married to Henry Ingalls. The estate was settled as described in the following paper:(1)—

     "Know all men by these presents that whereas George Abbot of Andover in ye County of Essex taylor deceased ye 22d of March 1688-9 and left noe written will behind him, that could be found
    & about that time ye Government of ye Country being in an unsettled posture, we ye subscribers, being his wife & children (except such as are under age) thought it our best way to take an inventory of his estate and to agree upon ye division of it which is as followeth: The widdowe of sd Abbot hath accepted of about 25 pounds which she hath received already as her full satisfaction for her part or share reserving an interest in one end of the house, if she see cause to make use thereof at any time during her life.

     "George Abbot, eldest son of the sd George Abbot deceased hath accepted of 16 acres of upland on which he had built a house during his fathers life & was given to sd George by his late father, tho there was noe legall conveyance and alsoe a parcell of meadowe commonly called Woodchuck meadowe with some part of stock now in his hands of about (?) pounds value and about one Sixth pt
    of ye household stuff which he is now possessed of and alsoe half of ye meadowe in Ye farther side of sd Woodchuck valued at five pounds" ....

     The other sons were assigned portions, and the daughters
    were to have such parts as they had accepted already. The
    instrument is signed by the second husband of the widow
    Abbot:--

     "I Henry Ingalls senr having married ye widowe of ye aboves'd George Abbot deceased before ye Signing of this agreement have consented unto & signed with them.

        (1) Essex County Court Papers, vol. xlvii., p. 12.
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 109
 
     "Alsoe we John Faulkner & Stephen Barker having married
    Sarah & Mary Abbot have consented .... &c
                    HENRY INGALLS
                       Her mark
                    SARAH + INGALS alias ABBOT
                    GEORGE ABBOT
                    JNO ABBOT
                    NEHEMIAH ABBOT
                    JOHN FAULKNER
                       Her mark
                    SARAH + FAULKNER alias ABBOT
                    STEPHEN BARKER
                       Her mark
                    MARY + BARKER alias ABBOT.
                        Her mark
                    HANNAH + ABBOT
                       Her mark
                    LYDIA + ABBOT"

     Among the descendants of this George Abbot were in
    early time Mr. Nehemiah Abbot, deputy to the General
    Court, 1717, and Dr. Nehemiah Abbot, settled as a physician in Andover, 1748. A sister of the latter was married to
    Amos Lawrence, of Groton. From this marriage sprung the
    illustrious union of families and names represented by the Hon. Abbot Lawrence, and Hon. Amos A. Lawrence. Hon.
    Amos Abbot, of Andover, member of the United States Con-
    gress, father of the Hon. Alfred A. Abbot, of Peabody, was of this line of descent. Also Dea. Albert Abbot, trader of Andover, is of this branch of the Abbot line.

     Thomas Abbot, another early settler, also founded a line of posterity at Andover. The name is probably more numer-
    ously represented than any other.

     Baldwin, Bixby, and Brewer have not been conspicuous
    names in Andover. A relic of the deeds of DANIEL BIXBY,
    1697 is at hand, whereby he conveyed to John Abbot for
    five pounds, thirteen shillings and eight pence "in currant money," a parcel of swamp land lying "within ye Township of Andover,' and "formerly in ye possession of Capt. Thomas Chandler on ye East Side of ye Ridge near Little Hope" .... containing" .... about five acres and one half & twenty-nine rods." ....
 
    ""In witness whereof I have hereunto sett my hand and seall
 

 

    110  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    this twentieth daye of May Anno Dom one thousand six hundred ninety & seaven & in ye ninth year of ye Reyne of our Sovereigne Lord William by ye Grace of God.  King of England, Scotland, France & Ireland Defender of ye faith.

                                      DANIEL BAXBEE
                                         Her marke
                                    HANNAH  X BIGSBIE
    "Signed sealed and Delivered
    in ye presence of:
    us: SAMUEL HUNT
            his mark
        WALTER + WRIGHT
        ANDREW PEETERS .... Befor me DUDLEY BRADSTREET,
                                Just of Peace.
 
 
 
     WILLIAM BLUNT was progenitor of a line of descendants
    who have owned considerable estates especially on the Hill at Andover. Some of these estates form a part of the grounds of the Theological Seminary. Mr. Isaac Blunt made a donation of land to the Institutions of learning. He was an inn-keeper during and after the Revolutionary War, and was also a hat or "felt"-maker. He lived on the present Salem Street, east of the Seminary buildings. His descendants, Mr. Charles K. Blunt and Mr. Samuel Blunt, live not far from the ancestral estates. One branch of the family lives at North Andover. In the colonial times the Rev. John Blunt, son of William Blunt, graduated at Harvard College, 1727, and was ordained minister of Newcastle, where he preached till his death, 1746, at the age of forty-two years. He was much esteemed, and a man of ability.
 
     JOHN BRIDGES was constable in 1678. In 1723, Mr. James
    Bridges was representative to the General Court, and was a man of great influence and considerable wealth, the owner of several slaves. His "mault-house" is referred to in some of the records. His death is curiously described in the epitaph on his grave-stone:--

                 Erected in Memory
                of Mr. JAMES BRIDGES
                who departed this life
                 July 17th 1747 in ye
                 51st year of his age
                Being melted to death
                  by extreme heat.
 

 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.   111
 
     James Bridges, 2d, in 1750, seems to have had much difficulty and controversy with Moody Bridges. From the Proprietors' Books it appears that in 1750 they laid out a grant of land to Moody Bridges in "ye new field."  This was in possession of and claimed by James Bridges, who refused to give it up:--

     "He with Holds ye same from me ye sd Moody Bridges. Put to vote to see if ye proprietors would put Moody Bridges in possession.   Negative.

     "To, see if they wd warrant the premises to Moody Bridges, by a lawful deed of sale.   Neg.

     "To see if they would enable him to draw money from ye proprietors' treasury to carry on a Law suite against ye said James Bridges to recover ye privileges out of His hands by a writ of ejectment.   Neg.

     "To see if the proprietors would take it into their own hands & ejecte ye sd James Bridges outt of said premises.     Neg.

     "To see if ye Proprietors will give up to Moody Bridges the note of sixteen pounds he gave for the grant. Afirm."
 
     Col. Moody Bridges was Adjutant to Colonel Fry in the
    French and Indian War, and performed arduous service (else-where referred to). He was an ardent patriot and made stirring Revolutionary speeches. He was delegate to the Provincial Congress, 1774-75. He died 1801, aged seventy-eight.

     The epitaph on his grave-stone says:--
 
        "He was a man eminently useful in his day
         He lived, beloved, revered, and died greatly
         lamented by all his family & acquaintances."
 
     Col. Moody Bridges, who died at North Andover, 1865, was
    for nearly fifty years deputy sheriff of the county. He was a man of genial hospitality and hearty good fellow-ship, and conspicuous in all the trainings and musters and county cattle shows, where his portly figure and ruddy face, beaming with good nature, his flowing gray locks under his cocked hat, and his stentorian voice, made him a prince of marshals, the observed of all observers.

     Of Colonel Bridges's large family, all have either died or removed from their former residence at North Andover.
 

 

    112 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
     JOHN CARLTON, whose name appears on the list of 1678,
    died at the age of eighty-seven. Neither he nor his descendants for a hundred years, appear in any prominent public connection, but the family in all its branches of descent has been of marked excellence and probity. The traces of them are few in the public records, they having, as appears, lived remarkably free from the litigation and complaints which have made some names conspicuous, and have served (if no other good) to preserve interesting facts of manners and customs.

     An epitaph on the gravestone of one of the family, perhaps sums up the character of the majority of the Carlton name:--

               He was benevolent, just and
               peaceable with all."

     Dr. John Ingalls Carlton, son of Mr. Dean Carlton, was a
    graduate of Harvard College 1814, and settled as a physician in North Andover.

     Among those who have entered into business successfully,
    is Mr. Jacob F. Carlton, who kept the United States Hotel
    in New York, and is now resident at Andover. Mr. Henry
    Carlton was a teacher in San Francisco.

     The name is represented at North Andover, by several excellent citizens of local influence.
 
     MR. FRANCIS DANE was the second minister of Andover.
    A history of his ministry is given in the chapter on the
    churches. His influence in the town was greater than that
    of any other man, except, perhaps, Captain Bradstreet, during the time of the witchcraft delusion, to stay the frenzy. His descendants have been numerous in Andover, the west part of the town, but none have been eminent as was the founder of the line. Dea. John Dane was a prominent member of the South Church. Rev. John Dane, son of Daniel Dane, a graduate of Dartmouth College, 1800, was minister of Newfield, Maine.

     No tombstone or relic of the Dane family is found in the
    Old North Burying Ground, near the site of the meeting-
    house, where Mr. Francis Dane ministered.
 
     The name of EIRRES has never been conspicuous in the
    town.
 

 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 113
 
     RALPH FARNUM married Elizabeth Holt, 1658.
     Thomas Farnum married Elizabeth Sibborn, 1660.
     John Farnum married Rebekah Kent, 1667.
     Among the noteworthy names of this large family, or
    families, are, Capt. John Farnum, during the French War;
    Mr. John Farnum, graduate of Harvard College, 1761, member of the Convention for forming the State Constitu-tion; Capt. Benjamin Farnum, an officer of long service in the Revolution, and deacon of the North Church till his death, 1833, at the age of eighty-seven; Dea. Jede-diah Farnham, of the First Church and the "Evangelical" Church; his sons, Timothy Farnum, Esq., graduate of Harvard College, 1808, counsellor-at-law, Monmouth, Me.; Rev. Enoch Farnham,(1) minister at Wayne, Me.; Mr. Edwin Farnham, trader, and conductor on the Boston and Maine Railroad (killed in an accident on the road, 1841), and Mr. Armstrong Farnham, merchant at Philadelphia and Boston. The latter was the original owner of the present residence of Gen. Eben Sutton, at North Andover, built 1857.

     Other citizens, Capt. Levi Farnham, Dea. Joseph Farn-
    ham, have been influential locally, and the descendants of the ancient settlers are very numerous in the Andovers.
 
     ROBERT GRAY was a mariner, the only one of whom rec-
    ord has been found in Andover among the early settlers. In 1699 he bought some hundred acres of land, more or less, from Henry Holt, Sen., and Mr. Dudley Bradstreet. These estates lie in the Holt district of the South Parish; one parcel is described as between Colonel Bradstreet's "Upper Falls Meadow" and Lieutenant Osgood's "Gibbet Plaine Meadow." The deeds have been handed down in the families which have continued to occupy the homestead to the present owner, Mr. Henry Gray. In February, 1718, Robert Gray made his will, giving lands and house and stock and
    "all [his] wareing cloaths and [his] cane with a silver head" to his son Henry Gray. This son bought the rights of other members of the family to their lands, and owned large estates.  He bargained in 1748 with Robert Gray (probably his brother)

          (1) This family adopted the more correct orthography of the old country.
               8
 
 
 

    114 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    to rent to the latter a mill privilege on the "westerly side of Salem road on the southerly side of the brook in my Paster by the Bridg" for the latter to grind scythes, he agreeing to pay therefor two good new scythes ready ground." In course of time, "Anno Dom. 1740," Henry Gray made his will, and bequeathed to his beloved son Henry Gray, 2d, his "lands and stock of Bruit creatures and Husbandry-- tools and tackling, and wearing apparel, and weaving loom and tackling, and best Gun and Stelyars," and to other sons lands and money, and to his six daughters pewter plates, and dishes, and all his books. In 1754, Henry Gray, 2d, made his will, a total inventory of L810 2S. 9d. His widow, subsequently married to Jona-than Peabody of Boxford, in 1766 made her will, giving to her daughter Alice, besides her household
    utensils, as "Box iron, heaters, spinning wheel," etc., her "best riding-hood," and to other daughters, her "camblet gound and amber beads, black quilted coat and silk crape gound and worsted gound and white apron."

     A son of Robert Gray was the Rev. Robert Gray, graduate
    of Harvard College, 1786, minister of Dover, N. H.  A descendant of this family is Samuel Gray, Esq., of Andover, now President of the Merrimack Insurance Company, and for forty years treasurer of the company. Among other descendants have been Mr. David Gray, and his son, Mr. Samuel Gray, city engineer of Providence, also Mr. Braviter Gray, of Tewksbury.
 
     The name of GUTTERSON has continued to the present
    time, but no special relics or memorials of its continuous generations have been found in the records of the town's history.  The Rev. George H. Gutterson grad-uated at the Punchard School, and the Andover Theological Seminary, and was ordained Missionary to India of the American Board, 1878.
 
     The name of HUTCHINSON has not, so far as has been ascertained, been at any point conspicuous in the town history.
 
     HENRY INGALLS, son of Edmond Ingalls of Lynn, in 1653
    married Mary Osgood, and, in 1689, married again the widow
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 115
 
    of George Abbot, tailor. A descendant thus records the
    genealogy:--
 
     "Mr. Edmond Ingalls from whom all these sprung was born in the year 1627 and died in the year 1719 who lived ninety-two years, and two months after his death I Henry Ingalls was born who have lived 83 years. So that we two Henry Ingalls both lived on this earth one hundred and seventy-five years."
 
     Capt. Henry Ingalls, writer of the above, died 1803, aged eighty-four years. He was an officer in service in the French and Indian War. The Ingalls descendants owned large farms in North Andover, chiefly in the Centre district, near the borders of the Farnham district. In the early history of the town, Henry Ingalls had his house-lot near the meeting-house at the Centre, which be exchanged for land more remote, in order to accommodate the town in respect to the location of the new meeting-house, as appears from a petition to the General Court:--
 
     "We have found out a place in the towne neere the meeting-house very convenient which is the lott of Henry Ingalls which we have procured by way of exchanging for seventy acres of the above-said hundred" (the hundred "being a mile from our meeting-house").

     Among the representatives of the Ingalls name of consid-
    erable repute, have been Col. John Ingalls of North Andover, a large farmer and a schoolmaster; Dr. Jedediah Ingalls, a graduate of Harvard College, 1792, physician at Durham, N. H.; his son,,Dr. Charles Ingalls, born at Durham, N. H., 1807, graduate of Dartmouth College, 1829, resident of North Andover, and some time in practice of his profession; Rev. Wilson Ingalls of Andover (South), graduate of Union College, 1836, pastor in Glenville, New York.

     This family is not, perhaps, so largely represented in the town now as some others of ancient origin, but there are several families of estimable citizens.
 
     The name of JOHNSON has been one of the most continu-
    ously influential in the history of the Andovers. The Johnsons who settled here, and at Charlestown and Woburn,
 

 
 

    116  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    were emigrants from Hern Hill, in Kent County, England.
    THOMAS JOHNSON and TIMOTHY JOHNSON were among those
    earliest in office at Andover. The former, a son of John
    Johnson, was constable in 1665, and was in town as early as 1658, when he married a daughter of Nicholas Holt. Stephen Johnson, carpenter, owned one of the first saw-mills. He married Elizabeth Dane, accused of witchcraft. His son, Francis married Sarah Hawkes, who had been accused of witchcraft. Timothy Johnson was constable about 1676.  His daughter,(1) Penelope, was murdered by Indians, 1698, March 4th. The homestead was the estate on the Haverhill road, in North Andover, at the corner of the street to Stevens's mills. The ancient house, where the young lady was murdered, stood east of the one now on the place. Capt. Timothy Johnson built the present house, and in 1771 gave it in his will to his son, Col. Samuel Johnson, whose home it afterward was. Colonel Johnson's distinguished part in the Revolutionary War is elsewhere noted. His son, Capt. Samuel Johnson, was also a gallant officer. He lived in the house which also had been for a time the residence of his father, and which was lately owned by Mr. Samuel K. Johnson. This homestead is now owned and occupied in summer by Mr. J. D. W. French, of Boston, an amateur and scientific farmer, author of valuable works on agriculture and stock raising.

     The ancient Timothy Johnson homestead, after being the
    residence of Col. Samuel Johnson, was the home of his son, Capt. Joshua Johnson, and the birth-place of Dr. Samuel Johnson, graduate of Harvard College, 1814, and physician in Salem. It is now the residence of a son of Dr. Johnson, Rev. Samuel Johnson, formerly minister of an Independent Religious Society in Lynn, now engaged in writing an extended work on Comparative Religion, two volumes of which have been published, "India" and "China."

     Lieutenant (afterward Captain of the Militia) William Johnson was in the Revolutionary service. Three of his sons have been prominent citizens of North Andover: William John-
 
           (1) Genealogists differ as to whether she was daughter of Thomas or of Timothy Johnson.
 
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.     117
 
    son, Esq., seven years representative, ten years senator, died 1857, in his eightieth year, unmarried, bequeathing six thousand dollars for the North Parish parsonage. His homestead is now the residence of his nephew, Gen. William Johnson Dale, Surgeon-general of Massachusetts.  Mr. James Johnson, merchant, of Boston, died 1855, leaving a large fortune, the fruit of his own enterprise and success. He was one of the trustees of the North Andover Cemetery, where, by his request, he was buried. Col. Theron Johnson is now living in his eighty-seventh year. He helped to found the Johnson High School.

     Other names of eminence are Samuel Johnson, M. D., of
    Andover (South Parish.), died 1864; Mr. Osgood Johnson,
    Principal of Phillips Academy, 1833; Mr. Osgood Johnson,
    Principal of Cambridge High School, died 1857.

     Many names are locally well known, as Mr. Samuel K.
    Johnson, Andover Express, and Mr. Charles F. Johnson,
    eighteen successive years selectman of North Andover.

     A descendant of a kindred line of Johnsons, of Charles-
    town, is Rev. Francis Johnson, Andover.
 
    KEMPE is a name not entering into the general history.
 
     LACEY is a respected name of North Andover, not promi-
    nent in the history, except in the period of the witchcraft.
 
     SAMUEL MARBLE was the eldest son of Samuel Marble, of
    Salem. He was a bricklayer, and he and his son acquired
    considerable estates. His brother was Noah Marble, a yeoman, living near his house. From them and their descendants comes the name "Marble Ridge," at North Andover.  Lieut. Cyrus Marble was in the Revolutionary service. Mary Marble, wife of Capt. William Johnson, was mother of the eminent citizens before named.
 
     MARSTON has acquired local permanence as a name in Mars-
    ton's Ferry, across the Merrimack River, at North Andover, and it is still represented among the citizens of the town.
 
 
 

    118 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
     MARTIN has never been a prominent name in the town
    history. It was of very early establishing. In 1662 a record says, that "Samuel Martin, late of Andover, had been gone out of the country six or seven years and big house and lands going to ruine and decay," his wife resigned them to the care of Nathan Parker, for the use of her son, Solomon Martin.
 
     NICHOLS is not among the names which enter into the general history.
 
     SAMUEL PHELPS and EDWARD PHELPS were weavers. An
    ancient deed signed by them and their wives, respectively,
         he              her
     "Sarah S Phelps" and "Ruth Y Phelps" conveys, 1697,
         mark.          mark.

    land near "rattlesnake rode" to Timothy Abbot. The name
    is honorably represented in the three parishes.
 
    SAMUEL PRESTON'S surname survives in the local name
    "Preston's Plain" near Ballardvale.
 
     JOSEPH ROBINSON lived near Boxford, and was in 1740 set
    off to Boxford North Parish. A serious disaster befell the family in 1741, chronicled in the "Boston News-Letter:--

     "ANDOVER, July 28-- Last Friday in the afternoon, a serious and awful accident occurred by Lightning at the House of Mr. Joseph Robinson of this Town. A stream of Lightning coming down the chimney of the Back room and in its passage breaking out Sundry Bricks and tearing up and breaking a Board of the Floor, bent its course into the Front Room, filled that part of the House with Fire and Smoke of a sulphurous smell, struck two young women who were sitting by the window, forced them back
    against the wall, one of which was found actually dead with her Hair and Back much burnt; the others Life for a time was despaired of, she being almost breathless but thro the goodness of God she after a while revived tho' with great bodily distress, and is now in comfortable circumstances."
 
     The Robinson family in one branch settled on the home-
    stead of Gen. Nathaniel Lovejoy, now the North Parish parsonage. From this branch is descended the well known naturalist Dr. John Robinson of Salem.
 

 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 119
 
     ROBERT RUSSELL is said to have been from Scotland, and
    from this fact the district of his residence received the name "Scotland District." The ancient homestead is now owned by Dea. Ammon Russell of the Free Christian Church. His brother, Mr. Abiel Russell, ninety-one years old, is the oldest man now living in Andover. He is one of the few pensioners of the War of 1812.

     In West Andover are branches of the Russell family, which is, though not so numerous as some, a large and respectable element of the citizenship.
 
     The names of SALTER, SESSIONS, and STONE,(1) are not
    prominent.
 
     SAMUEL WARDWELL was hanged for witchcraft in 1692,
    a martyr to his firmness in refusing to confess. Solomon
    Wardwell's estate was a part of the property bought for Phillips Academy, his cabinet or joiner's shop the first Academy.  Among the names of this family of prominence are Dr. Daniel Wardwell, physician, of Andover, 1822-1850; Mr. William H. Wardwell, formerly printer and publisher at Andover, now of Boston, agent for S. D. Warren & Co., Paper Manufacturers; Mr. T. Osgood Wardwell, owner of the old Osgood farm, North Andover, and Mr. B. F. Wardwell, Andover.
 
     JOSEPH WILSON was a cooper by trade. The statement
    is made(2) that he was probably a son of Rev. John Wilson, of Boston. Among the representatives of the family name have been Dea. Joshua Wilson, 1813-1823, of the North Church, and Mr. Isaac Wilson. The ancient estates lay on the borders of the two parishes. The first Grammar School, 1701, was near Joseph Wilson's.
 
     EDWARD WHITTINGTON and WALTER WRIGHT were weav-
    ers, who were granted liberty to set up a fulling mill in 1673, but seem not to have done it. Lieut. Joseph Wright, and Capt. John Wright in the French War, are the chief names of prominence.

     (1) The manufacturers of machinery of that name    did not originate in Andover.
     (2) Abbot's History of Andover.
 
 
 

    120 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
     The foregoing list may not include all who were residents at the time, as some doubtless failed to take the oath of allegiance. The following is a list of the taxpayers in the town at the end of fifty years after the settlement:--
 
    "A Rate(1) made for the minister in the year 1692 for the North End of the towne of Andover.
 
    Abbot, George, senior.
    Abbot, George, junr.
    Abbot, Thomas, senr.
   *Andrew, Joseph.
   *Aslebe, John.
   *Austin, Samuel.
    Barker, Richard, senr.
    Barker, Left. John.
    Barker, Stephen.
    Barker, Benjamin.
   *Bodwell, Henry.
    Bradstreet, Capt. Dudley
    Bridges, John.
    Bridges, James.
    Carlton, John.
    Carlton, Joseph.
    Chandler, William.
   *Chub, Pasco.
   *Cromwell, Job.
    Dane, Nathl.
    Eires, Nathan.(2)
    Eimes, Robert.(2)
   *Emery, Joseph.
    ffarnum, Ralph, senr.
    ffarnum, John, junr.
    ffarnum, Thomas.
   *ffarrington, Edward.
 
 
 
    ffaulkner, ffrancis.   Osgood, John, junr.
    ffaulkner, John.       Osgood, Timothy.
    ffoster, Ephraim.      Parker, Joseph.
    ffoster, Abraham.      Parker, Stephen.
    ffrye, Benjamin.       Parker, John.
    ffrye, Samuel.         Poor, Daniel.
   *Granger, John.         Poor, Widdow.
   *Graves, Mark, sen.    *Post, John.(2)
    Gray, Robert.          Preston, John.
    Hoult, Nicholas.       Robinson, Joseph.
    Hoult, Hannah, widdowe Stevens, Cornet Nathan.
    Hutchinson, Samuel.    Stevens, Joseph.
    Ingalls, Henry.        Stevens, Benjamin.
    Ingalls, Henry, jr.    Stevens, Nathan, junr,
    Ingalls, Saml.         Stevens, Widdow.
    Ingalls, John.         Stevens, Joshua.
    Johnson, ffrancis.     Stone, Simon.
    Lacey, Lawrence.      *Swan, Samuel.
    Lovejoy, Joseph.       Tiler, John.
    Marble, Samuel.        Toothaker, Allen.
    Marston, John, senr.  *White, John.(2)
    Marston, John, junr.  *Singletary, Benjamin.(2)
    Marston, Jacob.        Tiler, Moses, senr.(2)
    Marston, Joseph.       Tiler, Moses, junr.(2)
    Martin, Ensign Samuel. Swan, Robert.(2)
    Nichols, Nich.         Swan, Timothy.(2)
    Osgood, Capt. John.
 
 
 South End of the Towne.
 

    Abbot, John, senr.
    Abbot, George, senr.
    Abbot, Nehemiah.
    Abbot, Timothy.
    Abbot, Benjamin.
    Abbot, William.
    Abbot, Thomas.
    Abbot, Nathaniel.
    Allen, Widdow.
    Asten, Thomas.
    Ballard, Joseph, senr.
    Ballard, William.
    Barnard, Stephen.
    Barker, Hananiah.(?)
    Bixby, Daniel.
   *Blanchard, Jonathan.
    Blanchard, Samuel.
    Blunt, William.
 
   *Bussell, Samuel.
    Chandler, Capt.
    Chandler, William, senr.
    Chandler, William, junr.
    Chandler, Henry.
    Chandler, Joseph.
    Chandler, Thomas.
   *Carrier, Thomas.
    Dane, Francis.
 
         (1) Assessors' Records. The names marked * are not in the former list.
         (2) These seem to have been Haverhill and Boxford men who belonged to the religious parish of Andover. Some, perhaps, lived within the bounds of Andover.
 

 
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS   121
 
    Dane, William.
    ffarnum, Ralph, junr.
    ffoster, Andrew.
    ffrye, Deacon.
    ffrye, James.
   *Graves, Abraham.
    Gutterson, John.
   *Haggit, Moses.
    Hoult, Samuel.
    Hoult, Henry.
   *Hooper, Thomas.
    Johnson, William.
 
    Johnson, John, jr.
    Lovejoy, William.
    Lovejoy, Christopher.
    Lovejoy, Nath.
    Lovejoy, Eben.
    Marble, Joseph.
    *More, Abraham.
    Osgood, Christopher.
    Osgood, Hooker.
    Osgood, Widow.
   *Peters, Andrew.
 
    Preston, Samuel.
    Phelps, Samuel.
    Phelps, Edward.
    Phelps, Widow.
    Russell, Robert.
    Stevens, John.
    Stone, John.
    Tyler, Hopestil.
   *Wardwell, Saml's estate.
    Wilson, Joseph.
    Wright, Walter.
 
     Following are brief notes regarding such of the family
    names on this list (not found on the two preceding lists) as have been conspicuous in the course of the centuries.
 
     JOHN ASLEBE was a man of wealth and influence, repre-
    sentative to the General Court, 1701, and afterward. He
    lived probably on the hill, near the old burying-ground at North Andover. A record speaks of the "way over the hill from the meeting-house to Timothy Osgood's by Mr. John Aslebe's."  His farm lands were in the south part of the town, in the present Holt and Farnham districts. Aslebe Hill and Aslebe Pond preserve his memory. He died 1728, aged seventy-two. Mrs. Mary Aslebe, "relict of Lieut. John Aslebe, died Feb. 13th, Anno Dom. 1739, in ye 84th year of her age," as the epitaph on her gravestone records. She made a bequest of a silver tankard to the North Church.
 
     SAMUEL BLANCHARD was Selectman in 1687. It has been
    Stated(1) that he removed to Andover from Charlestown in 1686, but the name had become established in the town as early as 1679. In that year, land near "Blanchard's Pond" was bought by Moses Haggit. Also the list of proprietors states that he was a householder before 1681. There are more than forty of the name Blanchard on the list of members of the South Church, and eight assessors of the parish. Among the more recent representatives of the name were Mr. Abel Blanchard, who carried on the paper mill  before it was bought by the Marland Manufacturing Company; Dea. Amos Blanchard,

          (1) Abbot's History of Andover.
 
 
 

    122 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    the first cashier of the Andover Bank, a man of strict integrity and great executive ability; Rev. Amos Blanch-ard, D. D., graduate of Yale College, 1826, minister at Lowell for nearly a half century. The name has also been represented honorably by other citizens.
 
     HENRY BODWELL lived on the Merrimack River, probably
    on the Haverhill side, and in the present limits of Methuen.  In 1735, the Bodwells' Ferry was in operation. The tradition is that the Bodwell family were much exposed to the Indians who crossed the river at the fords, and making raids for cattle into the common lands or pastures, along the Shawshin, escaped easily across the river to their hiding-places.  There is a story that one of the Bodwells, an old man, but with keen sight, for he was a great hunter and marksman, seeing an Indian on the opposite bank of the Merrimack River, somewhere between the mouth of the Shawshin and the Falls (named from him, Bodwell's Falls), took aim and fired, killing the savage while, thinking himself out of range of shot, he was making taunting gestures. Bodwell, taking a boat and rowing across, found the Indian dead, and secured his scalp and his fine wolf-skin blanket.
 
     PASCOE CHUBB had an unenviable reputation in his day.
    He was, as is related in the chapter on the Indian wars,
    cashiered for treasonable or inefficient conduct at Fort Pemaquid, imprisoned in Boston jail, and finally set at liberty and allowed to live in seclusion at Andover. He had married in this town a daughter of Mr. Edmond Faulkner, and previous to his military misdemeanors had been presented before the court of the county for offences. He seems to have been an unprincipled man, whose connection with Andover families brought chiefly disgrace and sorrow. He and his wife were murdered by the Indians, 1698. With their death the name perished from Andover annals.
 
     THOMAS CARRIER removed to Andover from Billerica. He
    is said to have been a native of Wales. He is noteworthy
    principally as having been the husband of Martha (Allen)
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 123
 
    Carrier, who was hanged for witchcraft. He seems to have
    been not greatly disturbed by any of the events of life. He lived to a good old age, as is said, attaining one hundred and nine years. His name is given on the list of the South Church members removed by death, but he had then become a resident of the town of Colchester, Conn. He was of remarkable physical strength, and walked six miles shortly before his death.
 
     JOSEPH EMERY was not in any prominent civil or military
    office connected with the town. In 1719, he had three grants of land laid out to him by the proprietors: One in Merrimack Woods, one on the Shawshin near his dwelling-house, bounded at the west by his former land on Shawshin River, and near Paul Faulkner's house, "just below the place commonly called the(1) Marchants ford.'"

     Jacob Emery was a graduate of Harvard College, 1761, and
    ordained minister of Pembroke, N. H., 1768.

     In 1831, Rev., Joshua Emery, and in 1834, Rev. Samuel H.
    Emery, graduated from Amherst College. They were sons of
    Joshua Emery, formerly resident of Boxford and sometime
    resident of North Andover, afterward of Andover.
 
     EDWARD FARRINGTON. The family name was conspicuous,
    especially during the French and Indian War, and in the
    Revolution.

     Lieut. Jacob Farrington, in the military company known as Rogers' Rangers, on the borders of Canada, performed some valiant exploits. Several privates were in the Revolutionary service. Capt. Thomas Farrington, an officer of Andover, in the French and Indian War, removed to Groton, and there became famous.

     Capt. Philip Farrington was a well-known citizen of North Andover fifty years ago. He lived on the estate now owned by Mr. Edward Frothingham of Boston.

     Abraham Graves, son of Mark Graves, was a weaver. The
    name has not entered conspicuously into the town history.
 
     MOSES HAGGIT of Ipswich, in 1679, bought of Stephen
    Johnson fourteen acres of upland and seven acres of meadow
 
 

    124  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    on the southwest side of a pond called Blanchard's Pond,
    agreeing to pay twelve shillings a year to all charges of church and town. From him and his descendants the pond received its present name, Hagget's(1) Pond. The land thereabouts keeps the name Blanchard's Plain.

     It is stated, in a historical discourse of Mr. Symmes, that in 1676 Mr. Hagget and his two sons were "capti-vated" by Indians; but I cannot find that they were then residents.

     They may have been visiting and viewing the land where
    they ultimately settled. The change in the name of the pond seems to have come about gradually. In 1720 it was still called Blanchard's:--
 
     "On the 20th of January 1720, then laid out to Moses Haggot and Timothy More all the great Island in Blanch-ards Pond so called ....  Said Moses Haggot is to have the one half of sd Island for allowance for a way over his upper dam."
 
     ABRAHAM MOAR died 1706. Timothy More (the name is
    variously spelled) his son born 1688, was a member of the
    South Church 1728. Anne (Blanchard) Mooar, wife of Tim-
    othy, became a member of this church, 1716. Twenty-one
    of this family name were members of the South Church before the division of the parish. The families lived chiefly in the west part of the town. Dea. Nathan Mooar has been an officer of the West Church many years.

     The Rev. George Moor, D. D., President of the Pacific
    Theological Seminary, formerly minister of the South Church, was the second minister native of the town, who was pastor of a church in its limits.
 
     ANDREW PETERS came to North Andover between 1686
    and 1692, from Ipswich.(2) He was a man of means, a distiller and licensed retailer, and his arrival in the town was regarded as of advantage to the settlement. He took a prominent part in affairs, and was the first town treasurer of whom record has been found. He also kept a public-house. He died 1713, aged ninety-six. His grave-stone still remains. His grand-
 
         (1) Now generally spelled Hagget.
         (2) Unless there was another Andrew Peters of Ipswich.
 

 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.   125
 
    son was Rev. Andrew Peters, a graduate of Harvard Col-
    lege, and master of the Andover Grammar School, 1723, the
    first minister of Middleton. Others of this family of prominence have been, Henry Adams Peters, a graduate of Harvard College, 1818, a teacher; John Peters, Esq., who settled at Bluehill, Me. Mr. Andrew Peters was a patri-otic citizen of some prominence in the Revolutionary time. He lived in the house now standing on the Salem turnpike near the Andover road. The ancestral estates extended along northwest toward Den Rock. Mr. John Peters, son of Andrew Peters, purchased the estates of Col. Joseph Frye and Col. James Frye, living for a time in the house of the former and ultimately removing to the homestead of the latter now owned by Mr. Nathaniel Peters.

     Mr. Willard Peters was a teacher in Tennessee. Andrew
    Peters, son of Mr. John Peters, studying for the minis-try, died while a student in Harvard College, 1831.

     Mr. Nathaniel Peters and Mr. William Peters, among the
    influential citizens of North Andover, are the last male representatives of the name in the town.
 
     ROBERT SWAN was a resident of Haverhill, or Methuen
    (as it was later), but the Swans living near the river were not distant from the North Andover meeting-house, and became members of the parish, some of the family ultimately settling in the town where their descendants are living.
 
     ALLEN TOOTHAKER was a nephew of Martha Carrier, and
    testified against her in the witchcraft trials. He came from Billerica. The name of Toothaker has disappeared.
 
     MOSES TYLER and HOPESTIL TYLER were sons of Job
    Tyler, who removed to Roxbury. His troubles with Thomas
    Chandler have been alluded to already. His son, Hopestil
    Tyler, seems to have established himself as a blacksmith, in the south end of the town. Moses Tyler lived in Boxford.  He had, as is supposed, a son Job. In 1701 "Job Tyler and John Chadwick of Boxford with Ephraim Foster of Andover petition for liberty to hang up two gates in ye road in ye
 
 
 

    126  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    bounds of Boxford that leadeth from Ipswich to Andover."
    Moses Tyler died 1727, "Oct. ye 2d in the 86th  year of his age," and was buried at North Andover. The descend-ants of this family, in some of its branches, scattered throughout New England, are eminent, but in Andover history the name is only locally known.
 
     Another resident of Boxford, who attended meeting at
    North Andover, was ROBERT EIMES, or AMES. After a time
    he, or another of the same name, lived in North Andover,
    near Mr. James Frye's. Mr. John Ames, in 1715, was one
    of the town's attorneys, or agents, to prosecute a lawsuit against Robert Barnard, in regard to a claim for land  During the Revolutionary War, the name became one of the most conspicuous, Capt. Benjamin Ames commanding one of the companies at Bunker Hill. He lived in the west part of Andover, "The South Parish" at that time. His son, Benjamin Ames, Jr., built the tavern (the present Elm House) at Andover, and was landlord. In conformity with the wishes and provision of his grandfather, Mr. Timothy Chandler, his son, Benjamin Ames (the third), was "brought up to learning and the college."  He graduated at Harvard College, 1803, studied law at Groton, the residence of his uncle, Nathan Ames, settled in Bath, Maine, and became distinguished as a lawyer and politician, President of the Senate, Justice of the
    Court of Common Pleas. He died 1835. His brother, Nathan Ames, was deputy sheriff of Lincoln County, Maine.
    Another brother, Ezra C. Ames, was clerk in the tavern,
    schoolmaster, trader of Haverhill, deacon of the Congregational Church, a man much respected. He was the father of Judge Isaac Ames.
 
     Of all the works of the settlers in the first fifty years no relics remain besides their written papers and deeds, the few gravestones in the burying ground, and one or two dwelling-houses. Of the latter there is only one, in regard to which satisfactory evidence is found of its having been the residence of one of the original sett-lers. This one is the Bradstreet house. The tradition has always been that this was
 

 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 127
 
    the residence of Mr. Simon Bradstreet. That it was the
    home of his son, Col. Dudley Bradstreet, is authenti-cated. The latter died 1702. He was married 1673. His mother died the year before. His father, Mr. Simon Bradstreet, removed to Salem about the time of the marriage, doubtless relinquishing the house to his son. It is stated in the Journal of Mrs. Anne Bradstreet, that, their house was burned to the ground July, 1666. Undoubtedly they built another immediately. The tradition has been that the frame of the house was brought from England; but, however this may be, it is not likely that Mr. Simon Bradstreet was houseless for seven years, or, that if he had within so recent a period built a house, his son would immediately build a new one.

     Some years ago the writer, whose birth-place the house
    was, took some pains to trace its history through the centuries. The sketch then printed(1) is here by request inserted (somewhat abbreviated), although it repeats and anticipates to some extent other parts of this history:--
 
    THE BRADSTREET HOUSE--HOME OF THE FIRST WOMAN-POET IN
                           AMERICA.
 
     In the original North Parish of Andover, on the Haverhill and Boston road, stands an ancient house, around which cluster the associations of two centuries, and which is especially interesting and memorable as having been the home of the first woman-poet of America, Anne Dudley Bradstreet. It was built probably
    about the year 1667 by the Hon. (afterwards Deputy-governor and Governor) Simon Bradstreet, and was his family residence and that of his son Col. Dudley Bradstreet, until the death of the latter in 1702. Old as it is, it had been preceded by another built many years earlier and destroyed by fire July, 1666. The present
    house seems likely, with care, to last another half-century at least.  Its frame is massive, of heavy timbers;  its walls lined with brick, and its enormous chimney, heavily buttressed, running up through the centre, shows in the garret like a fortification. On the lawn in front are two venerable elm trees, supposed to be as old as the house itself. They are of remarkable size, vigor, and beauty, though latterly(2) marred by the ravages of the canker-worm.

     Simon Bradstreet was one of the first settlers of Andover, as he had been one of the first settlers of Charlestown, Boston, Cam-

           (1) Boston Daily Advertiser.
           (2) The branches of one are now nearly all dead.
 

 
 
 
 

    128  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    bridge, and Ipswich. When there were only eight towns in Essex County, before Andover was incorporated, and soon after the land had been bought of the Sagamore Cutsha-mache for L6 and a coat, this enterprising and far-seeing Puritan man of affairs brought hither his family, and in 1644 built the first mill on the Cochechevicke, near its junction with the Merrimack, in the district now crowded with the manufacturing industries of the city of Lawrence
    and the villages of Sutton's and Stevens's mills, North Andover.

     Anne Dudley, reared amid the refinements and elegancies of an English castle (her father, Governor Thomas Dudley, had been steward to the Earl of Lincoln), at the age of eighteen, having been then two years married, came with her husband, Simon Bradstreet, to seek a home in the "wilderness of North America."  They were of the party consisting of Governor Winthrop, Mr. Johnson and his wife, the lady Arbella, sister of the Earl of Lincoln, and other eminent colonists, who in June, 1630, landed at
    Salem. Messrs. Dudley and Bradstreet, after several removals, first from Salem to Charlestown, thence to Boston, settled at Cambridge, where Bradstreet built a house near the present site of the University bookstore. In 1635 Bradstreet had again moved to Ipswich. The hard-ships and privations of pioneer life told severely upon the delicate constitution of Anne Bradstreet, and
    though she did not, like the gentle lady Arbella, droop and die, she soon became a confirmed invalid, as she says: "I fell into a lingering sicknesse like a consumption, together with a lamenesse, which correction I saw the Lord sent to humble and try me and doe me good." At the time of her husband's removal to Andover,
    she was about thirty years of age, the mother of five children, to whom three more were afterward added. Of the little brood, she thus quaintly writes:--

             "I had eight birds hatcht in one nest,
             Four cocks there were, and hens the rest.
             I nurst them up with pain and care,
             Nor cost nor labor did I spare,
             Till at the last they felt their wing,
             Mounted the trees and learned to sing."
 
    She chronicles her devotion to her husband as follows:--
 
    If ever two were one, then surely we;
    If ever man were loved by wife, then thee;
    If ever wife was happy in a man,
    Compare with me ye women, if you can."
 
    The neighbors of Mistress Bradstreet looked with a jealous eye
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 129
 
    upon her talent for verse-making and her ability to put her feelings into fine phrases:--
 
             "I am obnoxious to each carping tongue,
             Who say my hand a needle better fits."

     But the literati of her time regarded her as a prodigy. President Rogers, of Harvard College, said that "twice drinking of the nectar of her lines" left him "weltering in delight."  Edward Phillips, the nephew of Milton, speaks of her as "the tenth muse sprung up in America;" and John Norton says:--

            "Could Maro's muse but hear her lively strain,
            He would condemn his works to fire again."
 
     Her poems were first published without her knowledge through the agency of her brother-in-law, the Rev. John Woodbridge, first minister of the church at Andover. She seems to have written as a diversion from bodily suffer-ing and a solace for the lack of society; also with a desire to leave something which would be of interest and value to her children after her death:--
 
    "That being gone, you here may find
    What was your loveing mother's mind,
    Make use of what I leave in Love
    And God shall blesse you from above."
 
     The burning of her house in Andover was a great blow to Mrs. Bradstreet. For, after her many movings and break-ings up, she had hoped to spend here the remnant of her days in peace and quiet. With the house perished treas-ures that money could not replace-- a library of eight hundred volumes, rare and costly books; family portraits and heirlooms; furniture of rich pattern brought from England; and, what was beyond price to the gentle poet, store of tender and sacred associations. She thus describes her feelings at the time of the fire:--

             "I, starting up, the light did spye,
             And to my God my heart did cry,
             To strengthen me in my distresse,
             And not to leave me succourlesse,
             Then coming out beheld a space,
             The flames consume my dwelling place."
 
     She never quite liked the "newe house," although it was undoubtedly finer than the old one, and furnished with an elegance befitting the wealth and rank of its owner.

     Simon Bradstreet, honored citizen, exemplary Christian, kind husband, provided for his family an abundant home; took pride in his wife's poetical talent, and satisfac-tion in her lines concern-
                      9
 
 
 

    130  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    ing the various occasions of his life,-- such, for instance, as his mission to England to propitiate Charles II. toward the colonies; cherished her tenderly; and when, after forty years of faithful devotion, she died, mourned her sincerely. Four years after her death, he, hale and hopeful at the age of seventy-three, married
    again; lived twenty-one years thereafter; served as deputy governor six months, and as governor thirteen years-- with two years' interruption by the loss of the charter-- and died in 1697 at the age of ninety-four.

     His tomb still stands in Salem, to which city he removed soon after the death of his wife. On the tomb, but now obliterated, was the following tribute, copied and preserved in the records of the last century:--
 
     "SIMON BRADSTREET, armiger ex ordine Senatoris in Colonia Massachusettensi ab anno 1630 usqe ad annum 1673. Deinde ad annum 1679 Vice-Gubernator; deinde ad annum 1686 ejusdem coloniae communi & constanti Populi
    Suffragio GUBERNATOR.  Vir judicio Lynceato praeditus quem nec Minae nec Honos allexit, Regis authoritatem & Populi libertatem aequa Lance libravit.  Religione Cordatus vita innocuus, mundum et vicit et deseruit Die XXVII Marcij. Anno Dom: M. D. C. X. CVII, Annoque Regis Gullielmi tertii IX. et aetatis fuae XCIV."
 
     No trace of Anne Bradstreet's grave is to be found. She was probably laid in the parish burying-ground, whose moss-grown stones on the hillside can be seen from the windows of the Bradstreet house. All the monuments of her time have crumbled to dust, save only one broken tablet, which serves to prove that this was the burial-place of the first settlers. But though the gentlewoman lacks the memorial of "storied urn or animated bust," her "poems," as Cotton Mather remarks in the Magnalia, "divers times printed, have afforded a monument for her memory beyond the stateliest marbles."  Among her descendants, besides those bearing the family name, may be mentioned William Ellery Channing, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Wendell Phillips, Richard H. Dana.

     Dudley Bradstreet took his father's house and filled his father's place as a citizen of Andover, being selectman, colonel of militia and magistrate. Well it was for his town and for the colonies that the magistrate's office fell to a man inheriting the united qualities of Simon Bradstreet and Anne Dudley; for largely to the compassion and courage of Dudley Bradstreet was due the first check upon the fury of the witchcraft frenzy. He drew up and headed a testimonial and plea for some wretched women of
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 131
 
    Andover who had made confession of witchcraft "by reason," as they afterward declared, "of sudden surprisal, when exceedingly astonished and amazed and consternated and affrighted even out of reason."  He asserted-- and with personal risk-- his belief in
    their innocence.

     Then the cloud darkened over the Bradstreet house. The magistrate was accused of having himself practised witchcraft, and thereby killed nine persons, and the man who for twenty years had gone in and out before the people, trusted and loved of all, was now forced by their clamors to flee from his home and hide
    himself from their fury. If the voices of the centuries could become audible in the old house, what agonized prayers and anguished partings would come borne on the night-wind of that dreadful past of the witchcraft delusion!

     Even more startling and terrifying would be the lifting of the veil on the scenes of the memorable March day of 1698, when the snow-bound house was suddenly invaded by forty savages and its inmates dragged out into the wintry air, to see their neighbors' homes in flames and the snow stained with the blood of their townspeople. Here again the gentle humanities of Anne Bradstreet living in her son brought salvation; for an act of kindness, conferred by the magistrate some years before upon an Indian of
    the party, he and his family were spared a cruel death. They were carried about fifty rods from the house and released unharmed.  During the half-century which includes the French and Indian war, the Revolution, and the adoption of the Federal Constitution, the Bradstreet house was occupied by the Rev. William Symmes, D. D.

     There was reared the first lawyer of Andover, William Symmes, Esq., son of the minister, who left his native town because of the censure of his townsmen for his conscientious change of convictions and action in advocating the adoption of the Federal Constitution.

     The Bradstreet house, after the death of Dr. Symmes, was purchased for a summer residence by Hon. John Norris, one of the associate founders of the Theological Seminary. A manuscript diary kept by Mrs. Norris, now in possession of one of her descendants living in Salem, gives some pleasant glimpses of the household ways of the manse those three-score summers ago: "A deal of papering and painting, and making of currant-jelly, and bottling of 'cyder,' and going to Haverhill, eight miles away, for a
    barrel of flour, and picking raspberries 'on the South Parish
 

 

    132  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    Road’, and tea-drinkings, with such guests as Dr. Worcester, Dr. Pearson, Dr. Griffin, Dr. Woods; also 'Mr. Spring, a student' of the Seminary, spends the night often and writes his sermons 'sitting by the keeping-room fire, the weather being cool.'"

     A few years later there were sermons of another school of theology than that of Gardiner Spring written in 'the keeping-room, when it was o'ccupied by the young Unitar-ian minister, the Rev. Bailey Loring (father of Dr. George B. Loring), who lived for a time with the family then owning the Bradstreet house, that of Mrs. Elizabeth Parks, the widow of General Parks and mother of
    Gorham Parks, Esq., counsellor-at-law, Waldoborough, Me.

     The next scene that rises to view in the tableaux of the centuries is the boarding-school, the principal figure the school-master.

    "A man severe he was and stern to view-- Master Simeon Putnam, the pedagogue of fifty years ago."  The neighbors say that the grass was worn smooth by the roadside, where he kept the idlers and dunces sitting to con their tasks, a spectacle to passers-by. The windows of the school-room bear marks of the youthful propensity for rhyming as follows:--
 
             "Stranger, these tainted walls depart,
             Within are fetters to a freeman's heart!"
 
    Two of "the boys" have left their autographs cut on the glass: Amos A. Lawrence, Chandler Robbins. One of the sons of Master Putnam was Professor Putnam, of Dartmouth College, at the time of his death professor-elect of Andover Theological Seminary.

     Thus the Bradstreet house has gathered to itself store of history and tradition; and its rooms are shadowy with the forms of by-gone centuries. A veritable ghost is said once to have haunted it and made a frightful clattering in the chamber of a young negro-servant; but we do not need its help to fill up our collection of portraits, or to start the question of spiritual manifestations for, as Mr. Longfellow, with the truth of poetry, assures us,--
 
           "All houses wherein men have lived and died
            Are haunted houses. Through the open doors
           The harmless phantoms on their errands glide
            With feet that make no sound upon the floors;
           We have no title-deeds to house or lands.
            Owners and occupants of earlier dates
           From graves forgotten stretch their dusty hands,
            And hold in mortmain still their old estates."
 
    To this summary of the lives and posterity of the early
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 133
 
    settlers may be added a brief notice of them in their united capacity, as in town-meeting assembled.

     The town-meetings were regarded as hardly less important
    than the church-meetings, and were held generally in the
    meeting-house. All the freeholders not present at meet-ings were fined. It was agreed, in 1664, that "any seven" of the voters should have power to act, and "their action should be as authoritive and vallid as if the whol Town were assembled."  Decorum was enforced by penalties.

     "Feb. 10. 1673. It is ordered and voted that if any man shall speake in the town meeting whilst anything of towne affaires is either in voting or in agitation after ye moderator hath commanded silence twice, he shall forfeit twelve pence for each time; the twelve pence shall be levied by the constable. This order to stand good,
    forever."

     It was customary in the beginning to hold town-meetings
    whenever they seemed necessary. It was thought a great
    grievance when Sir Edmund Andros prohibited them from
    being held oftener than once a year. In 1675 the regular
    yearly meeting was voted to be holden in March, although
    this was not always done. For twenty years after the set-
    tlement of Andover, only church-members could vote for
    Governor and Assistants; but after the restoration of Charles Second to the throne, he insisted on the admis-sion to the number of freemen or voters of all men of honest and moral deportment. A perceptible difference in the warrants and town documents appears after the Restor-ation. There is more precise and formal recognition of the royal authority.  All the papers are in the name of the "Sovereign Lord the King," etc. In 1678, as has been said, an oath of allegiance to the king was exacted from every male resident over sixteen years of age.

     The supervision of the towns, in their corporate capacity, as well as of the action of the colony, was more systematic, and the power exercised arbitrary, until, by the royal mandate, the colonial charter was declared forfeited.

     In 1683 Andover and Bradford were fined for not collect-
    ing the due amount of taxes; not rating their waste lands:--

    "The Court being informed that the Selectmen of Andover &
 
 
 

    134 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    Bradford did wholly neglect the observance of the late order relating to the rating of wast lands, the Secretary was ordered to send a warrant for their or one of their appearance before this Court to give an account for ye same. Warrant issued out accordingly & Left. John Osgood & Capt. Shuball Walker appeared & gave in their answers. The Court ordered the selectmen of Andover and Bradford to bring in a just & true account of all the wast lands in their respective towns," &c.
 
     The following town action was taken in 1686 in regard
    to collection of taxes:--
 
     "1685-6 Mar. 1. Voted & passed that ye Constable from year to year shall ye last Monday in August at nine of ye clock in ye morning call all ye inhabitants of ye towne by name (by inhabitants is meant all house holders & persons that have ye management of any estate & hired servants) and if any such persons shall not then appear at ye meeting-house and bring the bills of their ratable estates they shall pay five shillings to ye use of ye
    towns, ye selectmen making ye constable a reasonable allowance for his care & pains."
 
     In May, 1686, the Colonial charter, so highly prized, was abrogated. Governor Bradstreet was superseded by a President appointed by the Crown (Joseph Dudley, his wife's step-brother) and a Council. Although appointed members of the President's Council, Mr. Bradstreet and Colonel Dudley Bradstreet declined to serve, the President being neither in age or temper a congenial associate.  But Joseph Dudley's term as President was short. In December he was set aside, and Sir Edmund Andros appointed Governor of New England. The town of Andover was not likely to cherish any warm regard for the usurper of the office so long held by their distinguished townsman, the former Governor.  Indeed, Mr. Dudley Brad-street declined to collect the extortionate taxes assessed by order of the royal Governor, an was, there-fore, imprisoned at Fort Hill. A glimpse of this first Andover rebel against royal tyranny, in his imprison-
    ment, is given in the diary of Judge Sewall. He probably
    had not anticipated such summary measures, and he was of
    the temperament and disposition, sensitive to wrong, to feel keenly the injury.
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 135
 
     "1687. Wednesday Sept. 28. This day went with Mr. Mather
    and visited Capt. Bradstreet, who was much distracted last night; but now pretty well; said he had not slept in several nights, being confined at Fort Hill."
 
     It was useless to hold out, and perhaps Mr. Bradstreet
    acted in the beginning not so much from an unwillingness to collect the taxes, as with a view to serve the wishes of his townsmen. They could hardly expect him individ-ually to suffer to the extent of remaining in prison. He acknowledged (as, indeed, he might truthfully without sacrifice of principle) "great imprudence and folly," and, giving bonds for one thousand pounds, was released. (1) The town, in March, 1687, had taken action in regard to the laws of the royal Governor.
 
     "Voted that Deacon John Frie shall goe downe to Boston and inquire of ye authority [note the avoidance of the titles of officers or recognition of rights] how they understand ye meaning of their proclamation about ye Selectman and Constable continuing in place till further orders; informing them of ye actions herein and to
    make report to Capt. Osgood whoe shall inform ye town thereof."
 
     When the Revolution came, that brought Andros low, Andover was prompt to testify its sympathy with the move-
    ment.
 
     "Att a gen" towne meeting ye 20th day of May 1689, Capt. John Osgood was chosen moderator. It was voted & declared that it is their mind and desire that the Governor,  Deputy Governor, and Assistants chosen in the year 1686 (with the addition of such Gentlemen as shall be chosen by the major vote of the inhabitants of
    this colony to make up the number according to charter) and the Deputyes then sent by the freemen of ye sevll towns of ye said Colony [shall be the authority] accord-ing to Charter Rights until ye Government be more orderly settled by the Crown of England.  Capt. John Osgood was chosen as representative of ye Towne to carry ye above-said vote of ye Town to Boston and alsoe ye votes
    for such magistrates & others as are wanting in the former choice in ye yeare ('86)."

     A tract, "An Account of the Late Revolution in New
    England, &c., April 18, 1689," published soon after the events
 
        (1) Palfrey's History of New England, vol. iii.
 
 

    136      HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    occurred, describes the sufferings of the towns from the tyranny of Andros, and alludes to Andover. After stating that Andros imposed heavy duties and excise, and prohib-ited town-meetings, it says:--

     "When the inhabitants of Ipswich were required to choose a Commission to tax that town, some principal persons there, that could not comply with what was demanded of them did modestly give their reasons, for which they were committed to goal as guilty of high misdemeanors and denied an habeas corpus and were obliged to answer at the Court of Oyer and Terminer at Boston. These were severely handled .... Mr. Appleton was fined fifty pounds and to give a thousand pounds bond for good behavior and more-over declared incapable to bear office &c .... Like-
    wise the townsmen of Rowley, Salisbury, Andover, etc.  had the same measures. John and Christopher Osgood complain of being sent to prison nine or ten days without a mittimus or anything laid to their charge, and that afterward they were obliged to pay excessive charges. Thus was major Appleton dealt with; thus Captain Bradstreet."
 
     That was a day of rejoicing at Andover, which brought
    news of the revolution in England, consigned Andros to the prison, where he had incarcerated their townsmen, and restored to the gubernatorial chair the venerable Simon Bradstreet, and made his son, Col. Dudley Bradstreet, a member of the new Council.

     Following is a list of the civil officers from Andover. It will be noticed that the towns sometimes elected deputies non-residents, as Mr. Samuel Bradstreet, living in Boston (as is supposed) at the time of his election, and Mr. Thomas Savage, also of Boston:--
 
    REPRESENTATIVES TO THE GENERAL COURT.
 
                   1646-1746.
     First Century from the Incorporation of the Town.
 
    1651 Mr. John Osgood (died Oct. 1651.
    1669 Lieut. John Osgood.
    1670 Mr. Samuel Bradstreet
    1672 Capt. Thomas Savage.
    1677 Lieut. Dudley Bradstreet
    1678-80 Ensign Thomas Chandler.
    1680-83 Capt. Dudley Bradstreet.
    1686 Capt. Dudley Bradstreet.
    1689 Capt. John Osgood.
    1690 Capt. John Osgood, Feb.
    1690 Capt. Thomas Chandler, May.
    1690 Capt. Christopher Osgood Oct., Dec.
 

 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS   137
 
    1691 Capt. Dudley Bradstreet.
    1692 Capt. Dudley Bradstreet.
    1692 Mr. John Frye.
    i693 Mr. Christopher Osgood.
    1694 Capt. Thomas Chandler.
    1695 Major Dudley Bradstreet.
    1696 Capt. Christopher Osgood.
    1697 Lieut. John Osgood.
    1698 Col. Dudley Bradstreet.
    1699 Col. Dudley Bradstreet.
    1700 Mr. John Abbot.
    1701 Mr. John Aslebe.
    1702 Mr. John Osgood.
    1702 Capt. James Frye.
    1703 Mr. John Aslebe.
    1704 Mr. John Chandler.
    1705-09 Capt. Christopher Osgood.
    1709-11 Mr. John Aslebe.
    1711 Capt. John Chandler.
    1712-16 Mr. Benjamin Stevens
 
    1716 Mr. John Osgood.
    1717-21 Mr. Nehemiah Abbot.
    1721 Benjamin Stevens, Esq.
    1722 Mr. James Bridges.
    1723 Mr James Frye.
    1724 Mr. James Bridges.
    1725 Mr. Benjamin Barker.
    1726 Mr. Nehemiah Abbot.
    1727 Mr. Timothy Osgood.
    1728-30 Benjamin Stevens, Esq.
    1730-35 Mr. Joseph Parker.
    1737-39 Capt. Timothy Johnson.
    1739 Mr. Joseph Parker.
    1740-41 Mr. Timothy Johnson.
    1741 Capt. Timothy Johnson.
    1741 John Osgood, Esq.
    1742 John Osgood, Esq.
    1743-5 Capt. Nathaniel Frye.
    1745 Capt. Timothy Johnson.
    1745 Capt. Nathaniel Frye.
 
     Mr. Simon Bradstreet was one of the Assistants or Council during most of the time of his residence in Andover. He was one of the United Commissioners in 1644, and Agent to the Court of Charles II., 1662.

     Mr. Dudley Bradstreet was appointed Councillor in 1686, but declined to serve.
      DUDLEY BRADSTREET,
      BENJAMIN STEVENS,     Justices of the Peace.
      JOHN OSGOOI
 
       A List(1) of the Principal Town Officers in the First Fifty Years from the Incorporation.
 
     1665. Thomas Johnson, constable; Richard Sutton, fence     viewer.
     1669. Sergt. Henry Ingalls, constable; John Lovejoy,  William Chandler, fence-viewers ffor the southerly parte of the towne; Samuel Martin and Nathan Stevens ffor the northerly parte of the towne; Nathan Parker & John Abbot for the new-field; Daniel Poor & John ffarnum, ffor the ffields over Shawshin. Thomas Chandler is chosen to cary the votes to Salem. Daniel Poor, grand juryman.
 
          (1) The records are scattered and immethodical, and the alphabetical index lost, so that it is possible some names have been overlooked. The quaint method of recording has been in a measure copied. The mode of dating 1670-71 (and sometimes either date indiscriminately from January to March), adds to the uncertainty of the dates.
 

 

    138  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
     1670. Mr. Bradstreet, John ffry, senior, Richard Barker, Lieutenant Osgood, selectmen; William Chandler, constable; Stephen Osgood, grand juryman.
     1671. Mr. Bradstreet, Lieutenant Osgood, Richard Barker, John Stevens, John ffry, selectmen; Sergeant Ingalls is impowered by the towne to raise to be brought to Mr. Dane all his rates and wood and to sue or distrain upon any that shall neglect or lie behind. Richard Barker, John ffry, junior, Henry Ingolls, and Thomas ffarnum, surveyors.
     1672. Mr. Bradstreet, Lieut. Osgood, Richard Barker, John Stevens, Ensign Chandler, selectmen; Stephen Johnson, constable; Henry Abbot, senr., grand juryman;(1) John Stevens to view all such things as cutting down trees; Ensign Chandler, John Stevens, Richard Barker, survaires for mending the high roads; William Chandler, grandjuryman.(1)
     1673. Mr. Dudley Bradstreet, Lieut. Osgood, Nathan Barker, Ensign Chandler, selectmen; Samuel Martin, constable; Stephen Johnson, grandjuryman; Dudley Bradstreet, clerk of ye writts and of the towne and likewise to record all Grants laid out in the Towne booke. Feb. 2. John Stevens, Stephen Johnson, George Abbot, senr., Daniel Poor, surveiors.
     1674. Richard Barker, sen., Mr. Edmond Faulkner, Daniell Poore, Sergt. Thomas ffarnum, John frie, junr., selectmen; John Lovejoy, Nathan Parker, constables; John Barker, grandjuryman; William Ballard & William Chandler, surveyors for ye south end of ye towne, Sergeant ffarnum & Dudley Bradstreet for ye north end of ye towne.
     1675. Richard Barker, Daniel Poor, Edmond ffaulkner, selectmen; Nathaniel Dane, Steven Osgood, constables; John ffry, junr., grand juryman; Edmond ffaulkner, town clerk.
     1676. George Abbot, senr., branding man; Left. John Osgood, Ensign Thomas Chandler, John ffrie, jr., Stephen Johnson, Dudley Bradstreet, selectmen; Christopher Osgood, constable (south part of the towne); Timothy Johnson, constable (north part of the towne); Sergt. John Stevens and Thomas Johnson, surveiors; Dudley Bradstreet, town clerke, to enter all graunts in ye great towne booke, for which he is to have two pence a graunt in money or else he is not obliged . . . . .
     1677. Left. John Osgood, Ensign Thomas Chandler, Daniel Poor, John ffrie, Stephen Johnson, Dudley Bradstreet, selectmen; Corpl. Samuel Martin, constable (north end); Thomas Osgood(south end); John Marston, senr., grand juryman.

        (1) Two town meetings, January 6, February 3.
 

 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 139
 
     1678. John ffrie, junior, Richard Barker, senr., William Chandler, John Barker, Christopher Osgood, selectmen; John Bridges, constable (north end); Samuel Hoult, constable (south end); Samuel Martin, grand juryman.
     1679. Richard Barker, senr., Deacon ffrie, John Barker, William Chandler, Christopher Osgood, selectmen; Joseph Robinson, constable (north end); Joseph Wilson, constable (south end); Ralph Farnum, grand juryman.
     1680. Capt. Dudley Bradstreet, Left. John Osgood, Ensign Thomas Chandler, Sergt. John Stevens, Sergt. John Barker, selectmen; George Abbot, constable (north end); Joseph Ballard, constable (south end); Richard Barker, senr., grand juryman.
     1681. Capt. Bradstreet, Left. Osgood, Ensign Thomas Chandler, Richard Barker, senr., Deacon ffrie, selectmen; Samuel ffrie, constable (south end); Joseph Stevens, constable (north end); Daniel Poor, sen., grand juryman.
     1682. Capt. Bradstreet, Left. Osgood, Ensigne Chandler, Richard Barker, senr., Sergt. John Stevens, selectmen; John Abbot, constable (north end); Joseph Ballard, constable (south end); John Abbot, senr., grand jury.
     1683. Christopher Osgood, Steven Osgood, Sergt. Barker, John Marston, senr., Daniel Poor, senr., selectmen; William Barker, constable (north end); Left. Chandler, constable (south end); John Farnum, grand juryman.
     1684. Capt. Bradstreet, Sergt. Barker, Christopher Osgood, Daniel Poor, senr., John Marston, selectmen; John Osgood, constable (for north end); George Abbot, constable (for south end). April 25th: Abraham Foster, constable (for south end); Capt. John Abbot, grand juryman.
     1685. Capt. Dudley Bradstreet, Capt. John Osgood, Left. Chandler, Ensign John Stevens, Corporal Samuel Marston, selectmen; Corporal Nathan Stevens, constable (north end); James Frie, constable (south end); Corpl Samuel Holt, grand juryman; Left. Chandler, lot-layer.
     1686. Capt. John Osgood, Richard Barker, senr., Daniel Poor, senr., Stephen Osgood, Christopher Osgood, selectmen; Francis Faulkner, constable (north end); John Chandler, constable (south end).
     1687. Capt. John Osgood, Daniel Poor, senr., Christopher Osgood, John Aslebe, Joseph Ballard, selectmen; Stephen Parker, constable (north end); Samuel Blanchard, constable (south end).
     1688. Capt. Bradstreet, Capt. Osgood, Left. John Stevens,
 
 
 

    140 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

           Christopher Osgood, Capt. John Aslebe, Corpl         Joseph Ballard, selectmen; Capt. Thomas Chandler, commissioner; Stephen Parker, constable (north end); Samuel Blanchard (south end).
     1689. There was "no choice" or election till(1) July; "whereas ye time was lapsed" the election then made was only till January following: Captain Bradstreet, Capt. John Osgood, Capts. John Aslebe, John Osgood, junr., Richard Barker, senr., selectmen; Daniel Poor, constable (north end); ffrancis Dane, constable (south end).
     1690. Capt. Bradstreet, Capt. Chandler, Sergt. Joseph Ballard, John Abbot, senr., Henry Holt, selectmen; Walter Wright, Ephraim Foster, constables.
     1691. [January 5, 1690, for the year 1691, which was not reckoned to begin till March.] Capt. Thomas Chandler, Left. Jno. Barker, Sergt. Jno. Chandler, John Abbot, senr., selectmen; George Abbot, William Johnson, constables; William Lovejoy, grand juryman; Sergt. Henry Ingalls, jury of trials.
     1692. Capt. Dudley Bradstreet, Sergt. John Chandler, Sergt. John Aslebe, John Abbot, jr., Corpl Saml ffrie, selectmen; Timothy Osgood, Joseph Ballard, constables; Quartermaster James Frie, grand juryman.
     1693. Capt. Dudley Bradstreet, Capt. Osgood, Andrew Peters, John Chandler, Christopher Osgood, selectmen; Benjamin Stevens, William Abbot, constables; Ephraim Stevens, clerk of ye market; Left. John Barker, commissioner for assessments; Corpl George Abbot, sealer of leather; Henry Hoult, senr, ffrancis Dane, surveiors (south end); Ephraim Stevens, John Osgood, surveiors (north end); Ensign Samuel Martin, Corpl Nathan Stevens, Hopestill Tyler, Walter Wright, tything-men; Stephen Parker, Timothy Osgood, Abraham Foster, Joseph Wilson, Samuel Phelps, Joseph Marble, senr., fence viewers.
     1694. Capt. Dudley Bradstreet, town clerk; Mr. Andrew Peters, John Abbot, senr., Mr. James ffrie, Saml Blanchard, senr., John Osgood, selectmen & overseers of poor; John Barker, commissioner; Richard Barker, Henry Holt, senr., constables; Sergt. Ephraim Stevens, Joseph Stevens, Capt. George Abbot, William Lovejoy, surveyors; Sergt. Jno. Aslebe, Sergt. Jno. Bridges, Francis Dane, Nehemiah Abbot, tithing men; Corpl Samuel Osgood, Benj. Barker, fence-viewers (for north end); William Johnson, William Chandler, jun., fence viewers (for south end); Sergt. Ephraim Stevens, clerk of ye market; Corpl George Abbot, leather sealer; Benjamin Barker, pound-keeper (north end); William Johnson,

              (1) On account of the disturbances caused by the Revolution of '89.
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 141
 
           pound-keeper (south end); Benjamin Stevens, Saml Marble, John Marston, jr., Jno. Ballard, Benjamin Abbot, Jno. Stevens, Hawards(1) or field-drivers.
     1695. Mr. Andrew Peters, treasurer; Capt. Thomas Chand-
           ler, Deacon John ffrie, Jno. Abbot, assessors;     Dudley Bradstreet, town clerk; Majr. Dudley Bradstreet, Left. John Osgood, Quarter-master James ffrie, John Abbot senr., Sergt. Ephraim Stevens, selectmen; John Carlton, William Lovejoy, constables; Sergt. Ephraim Stevens, Joseph Stevens, Sergt. George Abbot, William Lovejoy, Henry Holt, Stephen Parker, surveiors; Ensign Martin, Nathaniel Dane, Benjamin Abbot, William Chandler, Tything men; Francis Dane, Joseph Marble, Nathan Stevens, Samuel Marble, fence viewers; Sergt. Ephraim Stevens, clerk of ye market; Sergt. George Abbot, leather-sealer; haywards same as last year; Benjamin Barker & William Johnson, pound-keepers; Andrew Peters, treasurer; Left. John Barker, John Chandler, Joseph Stevens, a standing committee, to take care to keep ye meeting-house in good repair & to hire suitable workmen for that end & to give their accounts yearly to ye selectmen whoe shall order ye treasurer to pay them, they putting money or moneys worth into ye treasurer's hand to enable him thereto; Samuel Ingalls, grand juryman, for ye quarter sessions att Ipswich; Andrew ffoster & William Chandler, tertius, chosen upon ye jury of trials at ye inferior Court of pleas.
     1696. Maj. Dudley Bradstreet, clerk; Maj. Dudley Bradstreet, Left. John Osgood, Capt. Christopher Osgood, Left. Chandler, Mr. Andrew Peters, selectmen; Sergt. William Chandler, Sergt. Samuel Osgood, constables; Sergt. Ephraim Stevens, Dea. Joseph Stevens, Corpl Stephen Parker, Sergt. George Abbot, Sergt. William Lovejoy, Henry Holt, surveyors; Qr. Mr. James Frie, Corpl. Benjamin Barker, Thomas Chandler, jr., Henry Holt, jr., tything men; Timothy Osgood, Samuel Hutchinson, Corpl. Benj. Abbot, Nehemiah Abbot,fence viewers; Sergt. Ephraim Stevens,  clerk of the market; Sergt. George Abbot, leather sealer; Benjamin Barker, William Johnson, pound-keeper; Mr. Andrew Peters, town treasurer.
 
     [There were town meetings in March, May, and August,
    this year.] May elections as follows:--

        (1) "Hayward" [Fr. haie, hedge, and ward= hedgeward.] A person appointed to keep cattle from doing injury to hedges. In New England the hayward's duty is to impound cattle and swine, which are running at large contrary to law.-- Webster.
 

 

    142 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    Dea. Joseph Stevens, Sergt. Saml. ffrie, grand jurymen to serve at ye superiour court att Ipswich; Corpl. Hooker Osgood, Jno. Ballard, jury of tryalls at ye above sd court; Capt. Christopher Osgood, representative for ye town.
 
    A List of the Selectmen Second Half Century from the Incorporation,
                        1696-1746.
     1696. (August elections.) Sergt. John Aslebe, Qr. Mr. John Frie, John Abbot sr., assessors for ye tax of seventy-six pounds granted at ye Genl. Cort 27 May 1696, ye assessors refused to serve for yt ye selectmen this year are to be the assessors as ye law directs & took their oath as ye law directs Aug. 2, 1696.

     Maj. Dudley Bradstreet, Capt. Christopher Osgood [2], Left. John Osgood [2], Mr. Andrew Peters, Left. John Chandler (1697).(1)
    [Sergt. John Aslebe is chosen a lott layer in ye roome of Left. Thomas Johnson, his age calling for a writt of ease], Left. Samuel Frye (1698), Capt. James ffrie, Ensign John Aslebe (1699), Samuel Osgood [2], Samuel Ingalls, Ephraim Stevens (1703), John Osgood [6], George Abbot [9], John Frie [8] (1710), John Chandler [16], Richard Barker [2] (1714), Nathanel Abbot, William
    Lovejoy [2] (1715), Ephraim Foster [2], John Abbot [6] (1719), Francis Dane [2], Timothy Johnson [9] (1720), Joseph Osgood, Benjamin Barker [4] (1722), Nehemiah Abbot, William Foster (1723), Joseph Robinson [2], John Johnson (1725), John Farnum [2] (1725), Ephraim Abbot [4] (1726), Henry Ingalls (1727), James Bridges, Thomas Chandler (1728), Ebenezer Abbot (1734),
    James Stevens, Joseph Sibson (1742), Nathaniel Frye (1743), James Ingalls [2] (1745)(2)
 
    Town Treasurers.
 
     Andrew Peters (1697-1704), Lieut. John Aslebe (1704-1706), Andrew Peters (1707-1713), William Foster (1714-1716), Timothy Osgood (1717-1721), James Stevens (1721-1729), James Ingalls (1729-1732), James Stevens (1733-1734) Henry Ingalls (1734-1737), Isaac Frie, 1738 .... Joshua Frye, 1745.
 
     A word or two may not be amiss in regard to some of the
    offices above specified: that of tithing-man is described in the
 
             (1) The date of year after the names denotes the time when first found recorded.  The figure in brackets denotes the number of times recorded as in office.
             (2) These are collected from memoranda scattered throughout the records, and possibly may be incomplete.
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 143
 
    chapter on the churches; it referring principally to the conduct of persons in regard to public worship and observance of the Sabbath.

     The haywards, as has been said, took care in regard to the injury to property by domestic animals.

     The office of branding-man had to do with the safety of
    the cattle which ran loose, also horses and other animals.  Each town had its brand-mark. The General Court in 1647, ordered that the brand-mark of Andover is A, ordered "for horses to be set upon one of ye neare quarters."

     Each individual owner also had his brand-mark. The fol-
    lowing is from the Town Records:--
 
    James Fries Ear-Mark Recorded.
 
     "December the 25th 1734 the ear mark that James Frie Giveth his cattel and other Creatures is as followeth viz, a half crop cut out of the under side of the Left ear split or cut out about the middel of the Top of the ear, called by som a figger of seven."
 
     From many records of stray animals taken up, the follow-
    ing are selected:--

     "Thomas Abbot of Andover hath taken up a blak horse as a
    stray, no eare marke or brand but a few white haires in his forehead and a few in his neck, prysed by William Chandler & Samuel Martin at 4 L, 10 s, the 18th day of December 1671." (1)

     "Benjamin Frye of Andover hath a darke bay mare, a blaze in her forehead, branded with the letter P on her neare shoulder, taken up as a stray the 26th of December '72, prized at 3L,10s by John Lovejoy & William B_____. Entered 13 March 1672."

     "1686. Andrew Peeters of Ipswich hath a browne bay horse, a star in the forehead, mealy belly, browne nose, noe ear-marke, nor brand that is seen, doct:-- alsoe a sorell mare, a white slip on the nose & white in the forehead, mealy under the belly, a little piece cut, a snip neare eare, doct & lame; prized both of them at 40s
    by Simon T[uttle ?]."
 
         (1) Registry of Deeds, "Ipswich," Book I.
 

 

    144  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
     Not the horses and cattle only, but the settlers themselves were liable to go astray and become bewildered and lost in the trackless wilds. Death in the woods was no uncommon occurrence. Witness the following, the first record of a coroner's jury:--

     "The verdict of jury appyonted upon the body of Peter Allyn whoe going forth into the woods to worke in March last could not be found nor heard of notwithstanding the diligent search that was made for him several days till this 21: 4th '64. An Indian informed there was an Englishman found in the River called Shawshin about a myle from the Towne of Andover, wee repared to the place & found the sd Peter Allyn lying in the sd river pt of his clothing on & girt about him, his breaches gone, stockings being rolled or torne off & pt of his flesh consumed soe wee concluded according to our best apprehension that hee lost himself in the woods & going over the bridge accidentally fell in & was drowned; that our verdict witness our hands this 21: 4th '64
              JOHN FRIE
              RICHARD BARKER
              The mark of JOHN JOHNSON
              HENRY INGALS
              RALFE + FFARNUM (his mark)
              JOHN + RUSSE (his mark)
              GEORGE ABBOT
              MARK + GRAVES (his mark)
              ROBERT + RUSSEL (his mark)
              TIMOTHY JOHNSON
              WALTER WRIGHT (his mark)"
 
     Among the above named officers of the town was the clerk
    of the market. He had the care of the standard weights and measures. In 1649 the "two Constables of Andover" (no
    names), were presented before the County Court "for want
    of settled weights and measures" Witnesse Nathaniel Parker of Andover.

     The following record in regard to the clerk of the market is found in the selectmen's accounts:--
 
     "21 April 1719: Received of Robart Swan executor to the estate of Ensign Ephraim Stevens clark of the market for the town of Andover deceased, the said Towne Stander for waits and mesures: viz, two half-bushels, one peck, one half-peck; one ale
 

 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 145
 
    quartt-pott, one pint pott, one half pint. Waits; one half-hundred,
    one quarter of a hundred, one half quarter of a hundred, one seven pound wait, one four pound wait, one two-pound wait, one half-pound wait, one quarter of a pound wait, one two ounce wait, one melting-ladle, iron sealer, one yard-measure, and delivered unto Abiel Stevens clerke of the market."

     In 1716, the town voted "that an iron melting-ladle be pro-cured for the clerk of ye market to melt lead to make weights, as occasion may be for the inhabitants and to be paid for by ye town and kept for the town's use."

     In 1717 there was an attempt made to keep the accounts
    more clearly and improve upon the method of arrangement,
    with the purchase of a "new booke." In this book was the
    following entry:--

     "This Book was bought in the month of August, in the yeare of our Lord anno dom. 1717. For ye Town of Andover for their selectmens youse sucksessively fr to keep their accounts for the sd Town Reackonings. And they have begun the book with an alphabett(1) to the Ready finding their accounts and Reckonings and so have begun for to page this Book and Desir it may be paged out by those that shall suckseed in place."

     The town of Andover was, as Mr. Woodbridge stated, made
    up at the beginning of "choice men" "very desirable" and
    "good Christians."  These settlers took care to insure as far as possible the continuance of such a class of citi-zens. The selectmen were empowered to examine into the character and habits of all persons seeking residence and to admit none who were idle or immoral.
 
                    "ANDOVER, the 30th of January, 1719-20.
    "To MR. EBENEZER LOVEJOY, Constable, Greeting:

     "Whereas there is severall Persons com to Reside in our Towne and we feare a futer charge and as the Law directs to prevent such charge; you are Requested in his Majesty's name forthwith to warn the severall parsons under wrighten: to depart out of our Towne as the law directs to, least they prove a futer charge to the
    Towne." [Signed by the Selectmen.]

     The town also encouraged desirable persons to settle by
 
          (1) The alphabet being not now with the Book the "ready finding" is somewhat hindered.
                         10
 

 

    146  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    making them grants of land, or furnishing facilities for the investment of capital as in mills, iron-works, ferries, etc. Ministers and masters of grammar schools were exempt from taxation.

     The town grew with considerable rapidity, considering its inland situation and its exposure to attacks of Indians. Yet it was hardly a large or an old settlement before emigration from it began.

     It would be natural to suppose that the children of the
    first settlers, who had heard from their fathers, or had themselves shared in the privations and hardships of pioneer life, would in their manhood have been thankful to be in a measure exempt from such a lot and to enjoy in peace and quiet the advantages of a comparatively old settlement. But there was a fascination in the wilderness and a temptation in town building which were irresis-tible. To hew a way to fortune, as his axe cleaved the path in the forest, was the pioneer's hope; to have lands which would be all his own in a place where acres could be got for the clearing, even though it were at the cost of ease and comfort, seemed better to the ambitious sons of the planters than to be content with the comparatively small portion of the paternal estates which fell to any one of the usually many children of the first settlers.
    Moreover, a new town offered opportunities for "advance-
    ment," and this was the object of all the settlers, from Governor Thomas Dudley, seeking it for his son-in-law, the first minister of Andover, down to the blacksmith's apprentice, who looked to the day when he should set up a shop like his master's, and perhaps become, like that master, a representative to the Great and General Court. Capitalists also sought investment for their money in building new towns, setting in operation corn-mill and saw-mill, and carrying on lumber trade with Barbadoes and other places, whither the colonists shipped their prod-ucts and exchanged them for commodities of comfort and luxury.

     Thus, as always, where land invites, emigration began. Indeed, the planters of Andover seem to have felt very much cramped for room from the outset. The territory which now seems ample for thousands was "too strait" for a hundred or
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 147
 
    two hundred. Witness the following petition. It is not dated, but must have been within the first fifty years:--
 
     "TO Ye HOND GENL COURT(1) .... Humbly Sheweth.-- That
    ye wise and gracious providence of God having Disposed ye petitioners condicions and habitations soe ye now by ye blessings yt God hath given them in their estates and posterity they find themselves exceedingly straitened in their possessions and accommodations, many of your petitioners having for ye benefitt of gods ordinances and christian communion and neighborhood many years kept themselves and children under a narrow confinement, and
    whereas this Honble Court have always in order to ye promoting ye publick weale been willing and ready to incourage all reasonable requests with respect to ye orderly and sociable settlement of towns and plantations; and whereas many of ye petitioners are much straitened in their p'sonall acommodations and most of their children grown up and many others of ye petitioners wholly desti-tute of land for settlement and soe under a necessity to look out for inlargment and places of habitation.

     "And forasmuch as: This Honble Court have by sundry petitions granted, given and disposed sundry large and accomodable ffarms to sundry p'sons viz to ye worshipful ye deputy Govr Majr Denison and to ye Reverend Mr. Cob-bett and Mr. Higginson and to Marshall Murcheson and others lying to ye northward of Merrimack river, as they are now laid out and to the north west of Haverhill bounds and southerly from Exeter and forasmuch as
    between and about ye sd farms and bounds of sd Town There is sundry pieces and Tracts of land which added and granted as a township to ye sd farms may make a conven-ient township and forasmuch as your petitioners have consulted ye proprietors of ye farmes and find them ready and willing to give all Due incouragement for ye settling of a town or plantation ye petitioners humbly pray that ye Lands adjacent to ye bounds and farmes aforesaid
    being not already appropriated and laid out may be granted to ye petitioners and ye proprietors of sd farmes with such enlargement as may according to ye place and nature of ye Land be thought convenient; there being besides ye petitioner forty persons at least in ye whole under one hundred, if accommodations be found ready to settle themselves, sons and servts upon, and yt ye sd
    Graunt may be with and upon tender and favourable considerations and conditions granted to ym with respect to ye extent and
 
        (1) Mass. Archives, vol. cxii., page 202.
 

 

    148  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER
 
    tyme of settlement yt soe such of yr petitioners as cannot Comfortably make a suddayne remove may not be discouraged.
    JOSEPH PARKER, SENR.
    NATHAN PARKER.
    WALTER WRIGHT.
    SAMUEL PRESTON.
    SAMUEL HOULT.
    EDWARD WHITTINGTON.
    NATHAN STEVENS.
    ROBT. RUSSELL.
    THO. JOHNSON.
    STEPHEN JOHNSON.
    STEPH. BARNATT.
    RICHARD BARKER.
 
    JOSHUA WOODMAN.
    EPHRAIM STEVENS.
    SAMUEL FRYE.
    JAMES FFRY.
    TIMOTHY JOHNSON.
    STEPHEN OSGOOD.
    JOSEPH MARBLE.
    SAMUEL MARBLE.
    SAMUEL MARTYN.
    JNO. RUSS.
    JOSEPH PARKER, JUNR."
 
     In 1723(1) Stephen Barker and others of Andover,Brad-ford, and Haverill, petitioned for the grant of a tract of land called Pennacook, the present site of Concord,  N. H.  Their petition, though granted by the House, did not find favor with the Council; but they obtained another tract, now the site of Methuen. A relic of their exploration at Pennacook is the following:(2)--
 
                         "PENNECOOK, March 22,1723-4.
     "Marching, Capt. James Frie and Lieut. Stephen Barker with thirty men moved from Andover to go to Pennecook; ye 1st day was stormy, but we went to Nutfield and lodged there that night; the 2d day we came to Amiskeage and Lodged there; the 3d day we came to Suncook, in sd Pennecook and built four camps and Lodgd there; the 4th day we came to Pennecook Plains att ye Intervale Lands about 11 of the clock. There we found five of those men who came from N. Ireland (?) Mr. Houston was one of them; they came to us and we choze Capt Frie to discourse
    them with 4 men. They say that they have a Graunt of this Pennecook on both sides of the River. They call us Rebbels and commande us to discharge the Place both in the Kings name and in the Provinces and if we dont in a fortnight they will gett us off.
 
         (1) In 1719 some Scotch-Irish emigrants, who had landed in Boston, came to Andover and stayed here for some months, while waiting for their party to proceed to Londonderry to make a settlement. They introduced the potato into the town.
         (2) Mass. Arehives, vol. lii., 45.
 

 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 149
 
    We therefore desire you Justice Stevens, with the Committee to send us word whether we have any encour-agement to stay or else to draw off. But Capt. Frie's courage is so that he will stay allone rather than Let them usurpers drive us off."

     "A True coppy of ye journal sent from Pennecook and of their Treatment When they got there."
 
     The Pennacook tract was ultimately granted to Mr. Benja-
    min Stevens and others. Among them was the Rev. Samuel
    Phillips, who in the petition stated that, having no house-lot rights at Andover, and being the father of several sons, he desired to make provision for his family. Mr. Timothy Walker, of Woburn, who had been master of the Andover Grammar School, was also one of the party interested, and became the first minister. The beginning of active operations was in the spring of 1726. The place was then, as is said in an ancient description of it, "a perfect wilderness, having not the least sign that human foot ever trod there, and twenty miles up into the Indian country."  Numerous meetings of the persons principally interested in the settlement were held at Andover, at Mr. Stevens dwelling;" at Bradford, at Griffin's tavern; at Haverhill, at Eastman's tavern,
    and at Ipswich, for almost a year before things were brought to the point of setting out. In September, 1726, Ensign John Chandler, of Andover, John Ayer, of Haverhill, and Mr. William Barker, of Andover, were chosen "to clear a sufficient cart way to Pennecook, the nighest and best way they can from Haverhill."  Other still more important leaders of the enterprise were Lieutenant-governor William Tailer and J. N. Wainwright, Esq., Clerk of the Committee of the General Court. The latter two had been up in May to view the place, and Mr. Wainwright wrote an account of their journey.  Ensign John Chandler went with them and helped survey the land. He was a man peculiarly fitted for a pioneer's adven-tures,-- athletic and strong, and of great courage, a
    noted wrestler, and a man whom to lay violent hands on
    was dangerous. The travellers went by way of Londonderry,
    where was a tavern at which they refreshed themselves with "Small Beer."  While they were prospecting, they were waited upon by a committee sent by Governor Wentworth
 
 
 

    150  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    of New Hampshire, who warned them that they would attempt to make a plantation there at their peril; for the place
    belonged to the jurisdicfion of New Hampshire. The set-
    tlers made bold answer that, as the committee were sent by the Governor of New Hampshire, so were they sent by the Governor of Massachusetts, and that they should proceed with their work, which they accordingly did. Their chief fear seems to have been of rattlesnakes. "We saw divers rattle-snakes but thanks to God, nobody was harmed." They voted to pay three pence per tail for every rattlesnake’s tail (the snake killed in Pennacook), to be paid by the treasurer on sight of the tail. Capt. Benja-min Stevens was first treasurer of the company, succeeded by Dea. John Osgood.  They voted to build a block-house, a saw-mill, and a ferry-boat, in 1726. In 1730, November 18 the minister was ordained. The two ministers from Andover, Mr. Phillips and Mr. Barnard, and Mr. Brown of Haverhill, officiated. Among the settlers were, several of the Abbot family of Andover.  One of these was the son of Timothy Abbot, who had been carried captive by the Indians into this very region, as is supposed.

     The bard of the Merrimack has made the name of Pennacook immortal in his "Legend of the Bridal" of the Indian maiden Weetamoo, daughter of Passaconaway, whose haunts were the region along the river, and who often pitched his wigwam in Andover meadows and woods. As the men of Andover, stout Ensign Chandler, and Edward Abbot, and William Barker, and the others plunged into the thick woods, axe in hand, or chopped down trees, and cut off
    the tails of rattlesnakes, or loaded their guns to shoot a "red-skin,' and pulled out their hunting-knives to scalp him as coolly as they would have to take the hide from the red-deer, they did not think much about the poetry of the scene. They had seen the homes of old Andover too often fired, and the blood of their children stain the savage's tomahawk, to have any compunctions about killing him.

     When Mr. Barnard preached the ordination sermon of the
    minister of Pennacook, he gave thanks that here God was
    now to be worshipped by Christians, where formerly there
    had been only heathen "salvages."
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 151
 
     Beautiful as is the legend of Pennacook, and great as is
    our sympathy with the wrongs of the race that has been exterminated by the Christian "pale-face," we cannot agree that times were better when the Indian's wigwam was the only dwelling, or think that the poet means literal truth when he suggests that the river of swift waters would lament if it could find voice, over the changes which the centuries have brought,--
 
          "0 stream of the mountains, if answer of thine
           Could rise from thy waters to question of mine,
           Methinks, through the din of thy thronged banks, a moan
           Of sorrow would swell for the days that are gone."
 
     From the narrative thus far it is evident that the town~
    though projected by a few of the rich and influential men of the colony, was composed, for the most part, of the middle and humbler classes, yeomen and artisans. There were not at Andover in the beginning more than a half-dozen men, in fact, hardly so many, who could be called rich or learned.  Good, honest, plain citizens, self-respecting and respected, were the first planters of old Andover, with one or two families among them of the high-est social position and connections in the colony.

     The following list, showing the occupations of the principal settlers, has been made up from incidental records in various documents:--
 
     Minister. Rev. John Woodbridge, 1644; Rev. Francis Dane.
     Gentleman. Mr. Simon Bradstreet, Col. Dudley Bradstreet.
     Yeoman.(1) Mr. John Osgood, 1650; George Abbot, senr.,
       John Stevens, Richard Barker.
     Husbandman.(1) Daniel Poor, Richard Sutton, Henry
       Ingalls, Job Tyler, William Ballard, William Chandler,
       Samuel Martin, John Abbot, Francis Faulkner.
     Carpenter. Thomas Johnson, Stephen Johnson, Stephen Os-
       good, Joseph Parker, 2d, Samuel Wardwell.
     Tanner. Joseph Parker, John Osgood, Christopher Osgood.
     Mason. John Marble.
     Bricklayer. Samuel Marble.
     Cooper. Joseph Wilson.
 
            (1) Convertible terms.
 

 

    152  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER,
 
     Wheelwright. John Farnum, 1712.
     Blacksmith. Thomas Chandler, John Bridges, 1692;
       HopestilTyler, 1692; Jacob Preston.
     Weaver. Richard Sutton, 1658; Walter Wright, Mark
       Graves, Samuel Phelps, Edward Phelps, Samuel Frye,
       Stephen Barnard, John Abbot, William Abbot.
     Tailor. Thomas Farnum, George Abbot.
     Shoemaker. John Johnson.
     Cordwainer. George Abbot, 1693.
     Distiller. Andrew Peters.
     Mariner. Robert Gray.
 
     The history of the industrial enterprises and the educa-
    tional and religious institutions founded by the first settlers, will be related in subsequent chapters. A few words may here be said to outline this period of the early history. The first industry which engaged general interest was the saw-mill and corn-mill. The town built a mill at its own expense.  Mr. Bradstreet is said also to have owned a mill. Joseph Parker had also a mill (perhaps the same which the town helped to build) on the Cochicha-wick. Stephen Johnson owned a saw-mill in 1667. The town gave encouragement to Walter Wright and Edward Whitting-ton to build a fulling-mill in 1673; but there seems to have been none built till 1689, and then the Ballard brothers were the owners. Mr. Bradstreet owned iron works in Boxford, and there were iron works set up at Andover, probably before 1700.

     The fisheries were a great source of profit for a long time, and a monopoly of the fishing places was granted to individuals who carried on extensive operations. In 1681 a vote was passed granting a monopoly of fishing for twenty-one years:--
 
     "Granted to Capt. Bradstreet, Left. Osgood & Ensign Chandler and such others as they shall associate to themselves, the libertie & privilege of fishing in Shawshin River from ye mouth of said river up to ye old bridge and upon Merrimack river twenty rods below ye mouth of sd river of Shawshin and twenty rods up the
    said river of Merrimack from the mouth of said river of Shawshin and twenty rods into ye said river of Merrimack from ye upper end and lower end of ye aforesaid twenty rods & ye abovesd persons
 

 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 153
 
    with such as they shall joyne with them are to enjoy ye abovesd privileges the full and just terme of twenty-one years from ye, first day of May next. The first ten years they shall have it for nothing, ye other eleven years either to pay ye towne 10 pounds per annum or resigne up their future interest in ye sd place, and alsoe they are to sell to any inhabitant basse at 5d per piece provided
    those ye buy, buy two at one time, ye parties buying to chose one, ye parties selling to chose another; and if ye parties buying choose rather to pay 3 pence per piece for basse in money ye owners of said privilege shall not refuse ye same, provided as above said, they buy two at a time."
 
     Another vote, 1696, provides for making a "ware for ye
    catching of fish."
 
     "4 May 1696. Voted and passed ye these tenn men hereafter named shall have the libertie of making a ware for ye catching of fish in Merrimack River att a place commonly called ye fishing place against Maj. Bradstreets his Ground. According to these terms following; viz, to sell to ye inhabitants of this town at any price not exceeding twelve pence ye score & ye inhabitants of this
    town to be supplied before strangers:

     "Mr. Andrew Peeters, Left. John Chandler, Left. Thomas Johnson, Sergt John Aslebe, William Chandler senr, Andrew Foster, Walter Wright senr, Henry Holt sr. Thomas Osgood, Daniel Bigsbee are ye sd tenn men.

     "This abovesd ware to be erected & finished as soon as ye streame will permit upon ye forfiture of ye grant."
 
     The making of spirituous liquors was a profitable industry.  Mr. Andrew Peters was a distiller, and Mr. James Bridges, 1721, and earlier, owned a malt-house.

     There seem to have been no "stores" proper for about
    seventy-five years. Salem was "ye nearest market towne"
    for many years. In 1693 there was a "market" at Andover.
    Doubtless it displayed country produce of various sorts, as the markets of England. The precise duties of "ye clerke of ye market" are not ascertained.

     A bill of goods bought by an Andover citizen, 1677, and
    which he was sued for non-payment of, is on record. Paul
    White (of Haverhill?), brought the suit. The amount claimed was ten pounds, ten shillings. Among the items were:--
 
 
 

    154  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    3 Yds of blew linen.
    2 glass bottles & 2 qts of rum.
    3 1/2 lbs of sugar @ 7d-
    5 yds of sarge @ 6d.
    Silke & buttons & a combe & horne-book.
    Tobacco, tongs, knife.
    5 qts rum.
    Gingerbread.
 
    3 lbs of fruit.
    A pt of wine and liquor.
 
    Latting-ware.
    i gallon of molasses.
 
     A large part of the trade was by barter, neighbors ex-
    changing with each other their surplus products.

     The first stores of which record has been found were that of Mr. Isaac Abbot, in the South Parish, and that kept by the son of Rev. Samuel Phillips, Deacon (the Hon.) Samuel Phillips, in North Andover. The advice given by the minister of the South Church to his son, in regard to carrying on his business, is not too old fashioned to be of use now:--
 
                              "Sept 271h 1738
                         "ANDOVER, SOUTH PARISH.
      ......As to your trading, keep fair and true accounts, and do wrong to no man; but sell as cheap to a child as you would to one that is adult; never take advantage of any, either because of their Ignorance or their Poverty; for if you do it will not turn to your own advantage; but ye contrary. And as you may not wrong any, person, so neither wrong ye TRUTH in any case whatever, for ye
    Sake of gain or from any other motive. Either be silent or else speak ye Truth.

     "And be prudent but yet not over timorous and over Scrupulous in ye article of Trusting, lest you stand in your own light.  Some people are more honest p'haps than you think for, and it may be will pay sooner than you expect. Keep to your shop, if you expect that to keep you and be not out of ye way when customers come."
 
     The agricultural industries, which were at the founda-tion of all the others, were at the outset of the simp-lest sort. The farming implements were few and rude. A great part of the country being covered with forests, it required much time and labor to fell the trees, and clear space for dwellings and house-lots, orchards and gardens. The largest farmers had not over four oxen, and six to eight cows. Horses were
 

 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 155
 
    scarce.  John Stevens had one horse, an ass, and colt, and two sheep (these were scarce), and a "stock of bees."

     But the second fifty years made a great change. New set-
    tlers came in. Schools were established, and professional
    men were common in the town, and from numbering a score
    the town had increased to near a thousand.

     Following is a list of the names not found on any of the
    former lists, but appearing among the tax-payers at the end of the first century from the incorporation:--
 
     ADAMS, AVERY, BAILEY, BEARD, BERRY, BEVENS, BRAGG,
    BROWN, CHICKERING, CLARK, COLE, COLEBE, CUMMINS, DELAP, DILOWAY, DODGE, DOWNING, FAVER, FIELDS, FISH, FISKE, FURBUSH, GAGE, JACKSON, JENKINS, GOOLD, GORDON, HALL, HARDY, HOW, JONES, KIMBALL, KITTREDGE, LAHORS, LATMON, LEVALY, LEWES, MECARNEY, MERRILL, MORIAH, NOYES, PEABODY, PEARCE, PERSON, PEVY, PHILLIPS, SCALES, SETON, SHACKFORD, SHATTUCK, SIBSON, SMITH, STEEL, STEWARD, STILES, THURSTON, TOMSON, TOWNS, WALCOT, WARNER, WHISTON, WILEY, WOSSON.

     Of the foregoing list of residents a very few of the more prominent will be now noticed.
 
     PHILLIPS stands among the names most widely known.
    The Rev. Samuel Phillips (grandson of Rev. Samuel Phillips of Rowley, and great grandson of Rev. George Phillips, the first minister of Watertown) came to Andover, 1710, as pastor of the South Church. He was, as a minister, not entitled to house-lot rights, but, as his family grew, he obtained large grants of land in new townships, in Londonderry, Wenham, Chester, Hampshire, Freetown, etc. His sons, born in Andover, were the Hon. Samuel Phillips, who settled in North Andover, the Hon. John Phillips, of Exeter, the Hon. William Phillips, merchant, of Boston, father of Lieut.-governor William Phillips.

     Hon. Samuel Phillips, a graduate of Harvard College,
    1735, entered into trade and established himself at North
    Andover. He built for his residence, about 1752, the house still owned by the family, the gambrel-roofed manse on the
 
 

    156  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    Boston road west of the burying-ground, and next south of
    the Bradstreet house, then the parsonage of the Rev. John
    Barnard. Mr. Phillips married Elizabeth Barnard, a cousin
    of the minister. His household was a model of a Christian
    family, his wife being a lady of rare virtues, and him-self, deacon of the North Church, a man of inflexible principles and integrity. He was among the most disting-uished men in the Revolutionary period, being representa-tive, senator, and the friend of some of the most eminent statesmen of the time. He was conservative and cautious, though patriotic.

     Of his family of seven children, only one survived the parents, Samuel Phillips, Jr., "Judge Phillips," also Lieutenant-governor. Through his influence Phillips Academy was founded by his father and uncle. He, after his marriage to Miss Phebe Foxcroft, of Cambridge, lived in the South Parish, and built the "mansion house" for his residence.

     The Hon. Samuel Phillips, Sen., died 1790. Judge Phillips took charge of the estate until his son (born 1776), the Hon. John Phillips, entered into business and made it his residence.

     Col. John Phillips, a graduate of Harvard College, 1795,
    studied law for a time, entered into trade in Charles-town, where he married Miss Lydia Gorham, daughter of the Hon. Nathaniel Gorham. Removing to North Andover, he lived here until his sudden death (1820), at the age of forty-four.  His wife, only thirty-six years old, was left with thirteen children, three sons. Few ladies could have shown more wisdom and ability, and none in North Andover have commanded greater respect, or won more cordial regard, than Madam Lydia Gorham Phillips. She maintained a dignified family rule, bringing up her children all to adult years, and to occupy positions of honor and usefulness. Samuel Phillips, Esq., graduated at Harvard College, 1819, was attorney at law, Andover, 1829, and afterward in Newburyport. Mr. John Phillips was a merchant of Boston. Mr. Gorham Phillips is a merchant resident of the State of Georgia. One of the daughters (married to Mr. William Gray Brooks) was mother of the Rev. Phillips Brooks.
 
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 157
 
     The latest representative of the family in the male line is Mr. Samuel Phillips, son of Samuel Phillips, Esq., lately cashier of the Maverick Bank, Boston.

     The Phillips manse is probably the richest of any in the town in ancient relics of ancestral grandeur. The fine old family portraits, the portrait(1) of Washington, presented by his nephews, the antique silver tankards and porringers, the massive sideboard, the carved cabinet, in which used to be kept mysterious packets of ancient letters too private and sacred to be read by any outside the family, the tapestries wrought by hands long ago mouldered to dust, the samplers in frames over the mantel, and the profiles of the first master and mistress of the manse, in the hall, the library of quaint old books owned by generations of ministers, dating back t  the settlement of the colony,-- all these appeal power-fully to the imagination, and stir the feelings deeply, as one goes from room to room in this ancient house.

The Phillips name is also now represented at North Andover by a descendant from another branch of the ancient Watertown family, the Hon. Willard Phillips, of Salem. He, in 1867, purchased an estate and various adjoining lands on the Lawrence Road, remodelled and added to the buildings, and laid out extensive pleasure grounds,-- landscape garden and woodland,-- which make the place one of peculiar beauty and picturesqueness.
 
KITTREDGE is a name among the most eminent in the  town history. Dr. John Kittredge came from Tewksbury to  North Andover about 1741, and ever since there has been  a physician(2) of this family in the town. Dr. Kit-tredge's father, a physician of Tewksbury, was often employed by Andover citizens in the west part of Andover, and this, doubtless,
 
(1) Formerly hanging here, now removed.
(2) Five names of physicians are on this list (at the end of the first fifty years there were none): Dr. Israel How came to Andover (South Parish) 1718, died 1740, succeeded by his son, Dr Daniel How; Dr. Nehemiah Abbot came from Lexington to Andover (S. P.), removed to Chelmsford 1770; Dr. Nicholas Noyes came to North Andover 1725, died 1765; succeeded by his son, Dr. Ward Noyes.  Dr. Parker Clark removed from Andover after about ten years' residence.
 

 

    158  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    led to his son's establishing himself here. Dr. Kittredge  lived near the present site of the machine-shop at North Andover, in the old house long disused and dilapidated and lately taken down. He owned land covering almost the whole of the present village. He was a surgeon of great repute. He had three sons physicians: Dr. Benjamin Kittredge, of Tewksbury, Dr. Jacob Kittredge, of Dover, Dr. Thomas Kittredge, of North Andover. He had also a daughter, Elizabeth, who assisted him in surgical operations, and after her marriage and removal to Londonderry, N. H., was frequently called on for medical advice. Once, in going to visit a patient in the evening, she made a misstep and fell, breaking her leg.  She set the bone, and did it so well that she suffered no serious inconvenience. Dr. Thomas Kittredge succeeded his father (who died 1776) in practice at Andover. His valuable services in the Revolutionary period as surgeon of the First Massachusetts Regiment, and on the field at Bunker Hill, his fame as a physician in all the neighborhood round about Andover, his prominent part in the political history, when the party feeling between Federalists and Republicans, or Anti-Federalists, was strong (he being a fearless and staunch Republican), his honorable influence as a member of the Massachusetts Medical Society, make the name of Dr. Thomas Kittredge one of the most distinguished in the County of Essex.

     Dr. Kittredge built, in 1784, the fine mansion, now the
    family residence. This, at the time of its erection, had no equal for elegance in the North Parish, and was only rivalled by the Mansion House of Judge Phillips in the South Parish.  The Kittredge mansion remains nearly unaltered from its original construction. The lofty ceilings, the great hall and broad staircase (a contrast to the small entry and winding, narrow stairs of the great houses of the colonial period), the heavy door and ponderous brass knocker, the long avenue leading up from the front yard gate, mark it as one of the stately homes of a yet courtly period, when even the most "republican" and democratic in theory held, in respect to style of living and social customs, the aristocratic ideas of
    the Old Country traditions.
 
 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. 159
 
     Dr. Kittredge had colored servants or slaves; and their
    Affairs-- weddings,(1) the birth of their children and domestic matters-- were of no small interest in their master's household. When the "great house" was raised (the former house stood farther north), an old negro servant, Caesar, carried the baby (Dr. Joseph Kittredge, 1st), then nine months old, in his arms, and held him up among the crowd, so that he might have it to say, when he should be a man, that "he was at the raisin'."

     Dr. Thomas Kittredge married Miss Susanna Osgood,
    sister of the Hon. Samuel Osgood. They had two sons,
    physicians: Dr. John Kittredge, of Gloucester, and Dr. Joseph Kittredge, 1st, of North Andover. One of the four
    daughters, Martha Osgood Kittredge, was married to Lemuel
    Le Baron, M. D.  Catherine and Maria were successively
    married to Judge David Cummins.

     Dr. Joseph Kittredge, 1st, graduated at Dartmouth College 1806, studied medicine with his father, and succeeded him in practice at his death, 1818. Dr. Kittredge was one of the most successful practitioners in the town, and rode far and near on his professional calls, his cheerful voice and cordial greeting everywhere welcome.  Dr. Kittredge married Miss Hannah Hodges, of Salem, a lady of remarkable strength and beauty of character. Of their three sons, two were educated for the medical profession: Dr. Joseph Kittredge, 2d, of North Andover, Dr. John Kittredge, of Taunton. One daughter was married to a physician, Dr. George C. S.
    Choate, formerly Superintendent of Taunton Insane Asylum,
    now of Pleasantville, New York.

     Dr. Joseph Kittredge, 2d, took his father's practice, and was an esteemed physician of North Andover until his death, 1878. Two of his sons have studied the medical profession: Dr. Thomas Kittredge, City Physician of Salem, and Joseph Kittredge, 3d graduate of Harvard Medical School, 1880.
 
     ADAMS has also been one of the influential names of North Andover. Israel Adams, whose name is on the list, was father of Capt. John Adams. He came to Andover from

      (1) See Chapter V1., the marriage of Cato by Dr. Symmes.
 

 

    160   HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    Newbury. He was a soldier in the French and Indian war.
    His son, Capt. John Adams (also in the French war), was an able officer in the Revolutionary service, and after-ward settled down quietly, and was an honored deacon of the North Church, of exemplary character and influence. He married Miss Hannah Osgood, daughter of Peter Osgood, Esq. They had two sons who lived to manhood, Dr. Isaac Adams and Maj. John Adams. He married twice again, but had no other children that lived to adult years. He bought of his father-in-law the Adams homestead, on the southeast end of the Great Pond.

     Dr. Isaac Adams studied at Harvard College, with the
    class of 1789, but did not graduate; he practised medicine in Newburyport, and entering into trade made several foreign voyages as master of a vessel, and finally removed his home to the State of Michigan.

     Maj. John Adams lived on the homestead. He was in active military service against the insurgents in Shays' Rebel-lion, and was subsequently commissioned Adjutant to Gen-
    eral Lovejoy, with the rank of major. His eldest son, Col. Joseph Adams, was President of the Mutual Marine Insurance Company, Boston. Mr. Joseph H. Adams, the eldest son of Col. Adams, occupies the homestead as a summer residence. Major Adams's eldest daughter was married to Mr. Daniel Appleton, of Haverhill (Appleton's Publishing House, New York), another was married to Prof. Asa Smith, D. D., of Dartmouth College.  A daughter of Col. Joseph Adams is the wife of Gen. William J. Dale, of North Andover.
 
     PEABODY is another name formerly of note in town. John
    Peabody, whose name is on the list, was father of Lieut.
    Oliver Peabody, Capt. John Peabody, and Rev. Stephen Pea-
    body. The homestead was in the extreme northeast part of
    the town, on the Boxford line, and near the Bradford line.  It is one of the most beautiful locations in that part of the town. The ground is high, commanding a near view of the farms and woodlands of the adjoining towns, and a more distant outlook to the heights of Haverhill and Lawrence and
 

 

    MEMORIALS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS  161
 
    other towns, while on the horizon Mts. Monadnock and
    Wachusett and other hills rise among the clouds. The
    estate was sold in 1791 by the heirs of John Peabody, Sen., to Mr. Nathaniel Gage. The house and buildings were in excellent condition, and the place was one having a good deal of style and rural elegance. This homestead is one of exceptional interest among those of the outskirts, as having been the birth-place of three men, all eminent in the town history, and having a line of eminent descen-dants in other towns.

     Lieut. Oliver Peabody was an active patriot, on the Com-
    mittee of Correspondence in the Revolution, and respected
    for his prudence and discretion. His son, the Hon. Oliver
    Peabody, born at North Andover, 1752, graduated at Harvard College, 1773, settled in practice of law at Exeter, N. H., was Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, President of the Senate, and in other important offices. The twin sons of Judge Peabody were Oliver William Bourne Peabody, Esq., and Rev. William Bourne Oliver Peabody.
    Capt. John Peabody commanded a company in the Revolution, and was also adjutant to the colonel of a regiment near
    Boston, 1776.

     His son, Augustus Peabody, Esq., born at North Andover,
    was a graduate of Dartmouth, 1803, and counsellor at law,
    Boston.

     Rev. Stephen Peabody,(1) the third son of John Peabody,
    Sen., was the first minister of Atkinson, N. H., a man of
    eminence among the clergy of New Hampshire at that time.
    His life and character are sketched in subsequent chap-ters of this history.

     The Peabody homestead was also the home of another
    minister, the Rev. Nathaniel Gage, settled at Nashua,   N. H., 1822. His brother, Mr. Daniel K. Gage, lived on the farm. It is now owned by his son, Mr. Nathaniel Gage, and other heirs. A beautiful house has recently been built on a part
 
        (1) Some writers speak of him as a native of Boxford, some of North Andover. The homestead is on the North Andover side of the line. In 1746 John Peabody petitioned to be set off to Andover, which seems to have been done. The Rev. Stephen Peabody was born 1741.
                11
 

 

    162  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.
 
    of the estate by Mr. George Edmund Davis, who married a
    daughter of Mr. D. K. Gage.

     The Peabody family in several branches has been resident
    in the town, or connected with the North Parish. A son of
    David Peabody, Thomas Peabody, baptized soon after his
    birth, 1762, in the North Meeting-house, by Dr. Symmes,
    was the father of the banker and philanthropist, George Peabody.

Samuel Peabody, Esq., a native of Boxford, was a much respected citizen of Andover from 1842 till his death, in 1859. He was a graduate of Dartmouth College, 1803, and  practised law at Sandwich, Epsom, and Tamworth, N. H.  Of his sons, still identified with Andover interests, is Judge Charles A. Peabody, counsellor at law, New York.
 
In respect to the foregoing memorials and relics, the remark may here be repeated that they claim neither to be  biographical nor genealogical in any strict sense of the word, but simply to collect such scattered memoranda as have been found of the first settlers and early residents, and to indicate the comparative influence of the several families. This has been a work of some difficulty, and its imperfections will, it is hoped, be charitably received.


HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER. by Sarah Loring Bailey, 1880
OCR editing by Phylis Holmes, scanned and OCRed by David Blackwell, further HTML editing by ____

 



    CHAPTER II.

    THE PART OF ANDOVER IN THE EARLY INDIAN WARS.

     In regard to the Indians who occupied the territory of Andover either for camping or for hunting ground, no record has been found. The sachem who acknowledged before the General Court in 1646 that he had made sale of the Cochichawick territory to Mr. Woodbridge and Mr. Edmond Faulkner, was Cutshamache or Cutshamakin, a dweller near Dorchester. What special claim he had to, or right to dispose of,
    the lands about Andover, does not appear. The following statement, taken from the "History of Dorchester," may be the explanation: "This chief appears to have been a mere tool in the hands of the colonial government, used for the purpose of deeding away Indian lands and acting as a spy upon the movements of neighboring Indians." He is said to have been a kinsman of Passaconaway, of the Agawam tribe, who made their camping places along the Merrimack from the mouth to Pentucket, or to Cochichawick. There are remains of an Indian burial-ground at West Andover, on the bank of the Merrimack, a mile or more above Lawrence. Skeletons of men, women, and children have been exhumed.(1) They were wrapped in hemlock bark. One was of a man of great size and powerful build. He had been buried with especial care, and, it is not unlikely, was a sachem or chief. Allusion is made in some of the ancient records of land sales and surveys, to a tract in this vicinity, originally laid out as "near Haverhill," and again "near Andover" and in the neighborhood of "Old Will's wigwam." Old Will was a name sometimes applied to Passaconaway. "Will's Hill" was between(2)

         (1) The graves were explored by Mr. Francis G. Sanborn, of Andover.
         (2) In the present limits of Middleton.
 

    164 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

Andover and Rowley. It may be that this Indian burying place marks one of the places of Passaconaway's abode, and that these are the bones of his tribe. In regard to him, Governor Thomas Dudley wrote in 1631, to the Countess of Lincoln: "Upon the river Merrimack is seated Sagamore Passaconaway, having under his command four or five hundred men, being esteemed by his countrymen a false fellow and by us a wich."

The one sole local name of an aboriginal resident is that of the Indian Roger. Standing on the spot known as Roger's Rock [the rock has been taken away], near the South Meetinghouse, or watching the course of Roger's Brook, it is not difficult with fancy's eye to see at our side, also viewing the landscape o'er, this ancient lord of the soil, clad in blanket and with belt of wampum, and bow and arrow, or arrayed in one of the "coates" of Indian admiration, and proud in the possession of a musket and powder and shot. It was no doubt the intention of our ancestors to deal fairly with the natives of the country, so far as they could consistently with their policy of getting the better part of that country for themselves. They bought the lands at such a price as the Indians valued them, and though, as in the purchase of Andover, many square miles of territory were got for a paltry sum, the buyers could hardly blame themselves for a transaction which, at the time, the sellers professed to be satisfied with. As a Christian commonwealth, also, the colony took measures for promoting the welfare of the Indians. Philan-
    thropists especially, devoted zealous labors to the conver-sion of the Indians from heathenism, and instructing them in the knowledge of the true God. Indians were taught the catechism and also classic lore, and were even admitted to Harvard College and ordained ministers of the gospel. But, put beside these the facts also that the masses of the tribes still kept to their traditions of tomahawk and war-whoop, that for the few who were converted and civilized, there were the many who learned all the vices and none of the virtues of the white man, and furthermore, that of the white men there were many whose vices exceeded their virtues, and it is easy to see how the problem of Indian treatment soon became one

ANDOVER IN THE EARLY INDIAN WARS. 165

    of the most difficult with which our forefathers had to deal.

    The missionaries to the Indians were enthusiasts, as, Eliot the great apostle, whose indefatigable zeal translated the Bible into the Indian language, but all whose efforts have failed to transmit to the present age a human being able to read the translation. These missionaries hoped all things and were ready to endure all things in their faith in ultimate results.  Through their labors, thousands of the natives were induced to adopt the Christian religion. Many of these forsook their forest-life and wigwam abodes and were gathered in small villages or settlements called "towns of the praying Indians."

    There they lived, in some measure like the whites, having a
    town government (their officers, magistrates, and teachers
    being Indians), and practising the useful arts. One of these
    towns, called Wamesit, was so near to the borders of Andover,
    that the Indians from it often had dealings with the Andover
    inhabitants. The Indian town is thus described by a writer
    in 1674:--

"Wamesit is the fifth praying town, and this place is situate upon Merrimack river, being a neck of land where Concord river falleth into Merrimack river. It is about 20 miles from Boston, North, north west and within 5 miles of Billerica, and as much from Chelmsford, so that it hath Concord river upon the west, north west and Merrimack river upon the north, north east. It hath about fifteen families, above 75 souls, 2500 acres, variety of fish, salmon, shads, lamprey eels, sturgeon, bass. There is a great confluence of Indians that usually resort to this place in the fishing seasons. Of these strange Indians, divers are vitious and wicked men and women, which Satan makes use of to obstruct the prosperity of religion here. The ruler of this people is called Numphow.(2) He is one of the blood of their chief sachems."

From this village (the present site of Lowell and suburbs) and from other places the Indians used to go up and down the Merrimack, and ascend its tributaries to fish or hunt. They used also to meet the English, while friendly relations existed, at certain places of conference for the purpose of

(1) Gookin's Historical Collections.
(2) In a trial of Indians accused of stirring up strife sometime after the attack on Andover, Timothy Abbott bore witness against this Indian Numphow.

166 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

trade or barter, exchanging skins, venison, game, for coats, powder and shot, trinkets, and bright colored beads, or wampum. A sail on the river today, from Lawrence (Old Andover, West Parish), to Lowell or to Haverhill, cannot fail to bring to vivid imagination pictures of those most ancient days, when the stream which now turns the wheels of great manufactories and keeps millions of spindles in motion, and which has all along its course thriving villages and populous cities, had its tranquil surface only now and then broken by the birch canoe or log raft, and the echoes of its hills disturbed only by the shout or war-whoop of the Indian, and the cries of wild bird or beast.

     Besides the villages of friendly or praying Indians, there
    were many individual instances of "converted Indians."
    These Indians were often taken into the settlers' families,
    and did house-work, or labored in the fields. In fact, all
    the more prudent of the natives at first submitted to the
    superior strength and wisdom of the English, making a
    virtue of necessity. At a meeting of the General Court,
    January, 1643, five Indian sachems, Cutshamache among
    the number, signed a paper promising "to be true and faith-
    ful to the said government to bee willing from time to time
    to be instructed in the knowledge of God." Yet under this
    submission was often a deep hatred of the invaders and a
    jealous fear of their powerful God. The English did much
    to increase this hatred, for not all were philanthropists, and in place of faith and prayer, the Indian often met fraud and force. He was quick to retaliate and resort to tomahawk
    and firebrand. To discuss the causes which led to the long
    series of Indian hostilities would lead us aside from our main path. We can only glance at the effect of these hostilities on the community whose history we are studying. The period of Indian hostilities began about the time of Andover's settlement; but the Indians in this immediate neighborhood were not at first drawn into the conspiracies. The colonists prepared for defence by organizing the militia, in which all able-bodied and "not timorous" males over sixteen years of age were enrolled. This organization was made in 1644.  The colony was divided into four counties: Suffolk, Norfolk,
 
 
 

        ANDOVER IN THE EARLY INDIAN WARS. 167

    Essex, Middlesex. There was one regiment in each county.

    The commanding officer of a regiment was called Sergeant- major. The commanding officer of all the forces was Sergeant-major-general. The first Major-general was Thomas Dudley. He was father of Mrs. Anne Bradstreet, of Andover. The Sergeant-major of the Essex regiment was Daniel Dennison, of Ipswich. He was brother-in-law to Mrs. Anne Bradstreet, and also to Mrs. Mercy Woodbridge, wife of the Rev. Mr. Woodbridge, of Andover [his wife was Patience Dudley, daughter of Governor Thomas Dudley]. He is described(1) as the "proper and valiant Major Daniel Denison, a good souldier and of a quick capacity his company are well  instructed in feats of warlike activity."  When the Indian depredations in the neighborhood of Andover, in the year 1675, became formidable, Major Dennison used every effort for the protection of the town, having not only his honor as a soldier at stake, but also the lives and property of his near and dear kindred. It was, doubtless, owing to his vigorous measures in cooperating with the local officers that the town of Andover suffered so little, in comparison with other frontier settlements.

     The following is one of the first Records found of military
    organization at Andover. It bears no date, but is placed in
    the books of the County Court Records, with papers from
    1658 to 1659:(2)--

     "TO THE HONORED COURT AT SALEM, You may be pleased hereby
    to take notice that the inhabitants of Andover have made choyse of John Osgood to be their Sergeant and chief commander in the roome of Sergeant Stevens who is willing and desirous to be dismissed. It is therefore our desire that the cort would bee pleased to allow and confirme our choyse of John Osgood for our Sergeant.

         FRANCIS DANE.       GEORGE ABBOTT.
         JOHN STEVENS.       THOMAS CHANDLER.
         HENRY INGOLLS.      JOHN LOVEJOY.
         THOMAS JOHNSON.     ANDREW GRAVES.
         ROBART RUSSELL.     DANIEL POOR.
         RICHARD BARKER.     WILLIAM BALLARD.
         THOMAS FARNUM.      EDMOND FAULKNER.
         GEORGE ABBOTT, JR.  ROBERT BARNARD."
         WILLIAM CHANDLER.

(1) Wonder-working Providence of Zion's Saviour.
(2) Vol. iv., p. 121.

168  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

     There are records which show that John Osgood was Ser-
    geant in 1661. In 1666(1) the officers at Andover were Lieu-
    tenant John Osgood, Ensign Thomas Chandler, Sergeant
    Henry Ingalls, also the same in 1675. In 1677 Dudley Brad-
    street was Captain, and John Osgood Lieutenant. In 1680
    the Essex militia was divided into two regiments. One of
    these (including Newbury, Rowley, Bradford, Andover, Tops-
    field, Salisbury, Amesbury, Haverhill) was put under com-
    mand of Maj. Nathaniel Saltonstall, of Haverhill, who had
    been captain of a company. The officers at Andover, 1680,
    were Captain Dudley Bradstreet, Lieutenant John Osgood,
    Ensign Thomas Chandler, Sergeant John Stevens, Sergeant
    John Barker. In 1683 several of the inhabitants of Andover
    petitioned the General Court for permission to raise another
    company to "compleat their troope to the number of forty
    eight men."  This was granted, and the command was given
    to Capt. John Osgood. In 1689 the militia of Essex County
    was divided into three regiments,-- Newbury, Salisbury,
    Haverhill, Andover, Amesbury, and Bradford forming one.
    The following is a list of Andover officers, covering, as regards those of the rank of captain, a period of one hundred
    years. The dates indicate the first record found:--

     Colonel. Dudley Bradstreet (1698).
     Major. Dudley Bradstreet (1695).
     Captain. Dudley Bradstreet (1677); John Osgood (l683);
    Thomas Chandler (1688); Christopher Osgood (1690); James
    Frye (1702); Benjamin Stevens (1706); John Chandler (1711);
    Timothy Johnson (1737); Joseph Sibson (1744); Nathaniel Frye
    (1745).

     Lieutenant. John Osgood (1666); Thomas Chandler (1685;)
    John Barker (1696); John Chandler (1696); Thomas Johnson
    (1697); Samuel Frye (1698); John Aslebe (1704); William
    Lovejoy (1714); Francis Dane (1717); George Abbott(1742);
    John Chandler (1724).

     Ensign. Thomas Chandler (1661); John Aslebe (1700); Fran-
    cis Dane. (1713).

     Sergeant. John Stevens (1660); John Osgood (1661); Henry
    Ingalls (1666); Thomas Farnum (1674); John Aslebe (1692);
    Ephraim Stevens (1695); William Chandler (1696); William
    Lovejoy (1696).

          (1) Essex County Court Papers, vol. xii., p. 24.
 
 
 
 

       ANDOVER IN THE EARLY INDiAN WARS. 169

     Corporal. Samuel Martin (1677); Nathan Stevens (1685);
    Samuel Holt (1685); Joseph Ballard (1688); Hooker Osgood
    (1689); Samuel Frye (1692); George Abbot (1693); Samuel
    Osgood (1694); Benjamin Barker (1690): Nehemiah Abbot
    (707)(1)

     In 1676 a letter, written by E. R.(2) [Edward Rawson or
    Edmund Randolph(?)], describes, for the information of the
    British Government, the condition of the colonial military
    force:--

     "They have no standing army, but their trained bands are
    twelve troops of horse and six thousand foot; each troop consisting of sixty horse besides officers are all well mounted and completely armed with back, breast, head-piece, buffe coat, sword, carbine, and pistols, each troop distin-guished by their coats. The foot also are very well furnished with swords, muskets, and bandaleers. There are no pikmen, they being of no use in the wars with the 1ndians..... There is only one 'old soldier' in the colony, the Governor, Mr. Leverett. He served in the late rebellion under the usurper Oliver Cromwell as a captain of horse.  The governor of the colony is always generall, and out of the rest of the magis-trates is chosen the major generall. They are places of good profit and no danger; they may stay at home and share the spoyle while younger men command the Army in the field
    against the enemy."

     The first record of alarms of hostile Indians at Andover
    is in the year 1675, the month of October. Then the whole
    colony was in a state of excitement, on account of the league
    made by Philip (sachem of the Wampanoags) of all the New
    England tribes against the English. No town felt secure
    against a sudden outbreak of the heretofore friendly Indians,
    or an onslaught of hostile tribes marching swiftly from. remote encampments. Major Dennison writes,(3) from Ipswich,
    to the Council in Boston, October 28, 1675:--

      "I am now advancing to Major Pike. I think I shall be able
    to afford him no more than the comfort of our presence for a

 (1) This list is perhaps not complete; but it contains the names which have been found after such search as the importance of the subject warrants.
 (2) Mass. His. Soc. Coll., Fourth Series, vol. iv.
 (3) Mass. Archives, vol. 1xviii-, p. 30.
 
 
 
 

    170 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

while, our posts at Topsfield & Andover being affrighted with the sight, as they say, of Indians which I have not time to examine till my return. It is hardly imaginable the panick fears that is upon our upland plantations & scattered places ..... The almighty and merciful God pity & helpe us. In much haste I brake off______"

In the month of November, impressments of men from the militia were made in all the towns, to fill up the quota of Massachusetts for an expedition into the country of the Narragansetts, who had joined with Philip. Twelve men were taken from Andover to complete the company commanded by Captain Gardiner. These were the following(1)--

    Joseph Abbot.      John Faulkner.  John Preston.
    Ebenezer Barker.   John Lovejoy.   Samuel Phillpes[Phelps]
    John Ballard.      John Marston.   Nathan Stevens.
    James Frie.        John Parker.    Edward Whittington.

Lieutenant Osgood, the commander of the Andover militia, in his return of their names describes the state of the company:--

"They are most of them now well fixed with armes and ammunition & cloathing. Edward Whittington wants a better musquete which wee know not well how to supply, except we take from another man which these times seems harde; we air now sending to Salem for sum.... for shoes and cloth for a coate for one or two."

These soldiers were marched in the dead of winter into the country of the Narragansetts and, December 19th, met the savages in the famous swamp-fight, where they defeated and completely destroyed their foe. In this fight Ebenezer Barker was wounded.(2)

     In subsequent years, large grants of land were made to the
    soldiers of the Narraganset fight. Seven different townships
    being laid out, "Narraganset, number three," Amherst,
    N. H., was granted to inhabitants of Salem, Marblehead,

(1) Mass. Archives, vol. 1xviii., p. 68.
(2) In the list of Major Appleton's men killed is named one of Andover, Robert Mackey(?) Drake's "Annals and Antiquities of Boston" names Joseph Abbot and Roger Marks, of Andover, as wounded. I do not find record of these names in the returns in the Archives.

ANDOVER IN THE EARLY INDIAN WARS. 171

Lynn, Gloucester, Andover, and other towns. Andover was allowed for nine soldiers.

The defeat of his allies did not daunt King Philip, but rather served to exasperate him for more desperate revenge. As soon as the spring opened, town after town was surprised and destroyed, and the most dreadful atrocities were committed.

February 10 occurred the attack on Lancaster, so graphically described by Mrs. Rowlandson, and familiar to every  reader of New England history. Flying rumors came to Andover of the shocking fate of the inhabitants of this town,  the mangled bodies of infants, and the painful captivity of  mothers, the burning of houses, and the bloody fight of soldiers and savages.

The Indians were on the march, so the rumor went, toward Chelmsford, and would soon attempt to cross the Merrimack and descend on Andover. Lieutenant Osgood sent despatches post haste to the Council at Boston, imploring help, and begging to be relieved from the order for soldiers to march out of town to Woburn,(1) since all were needed at home:--

"HONOURED GOVERNOR AND COUNCILL, these few lines are to let your Honours understand that the Indians have taken and destroyed the coburrg (?) which is a great threatening of near approaching danger unto us. It brings but ten or twelve miles from us, and this day seaven of our men are to march to Oburn according to your honours orders: we humbly crave this favour, if it may stand with your honours wisdom & favour to release our men that are to goe forth, as wee being an outside town & in as greate danger in our apprehension as any and may stand in as great need as any other town of help, this makes us bould to request this favour att your hands & shall acknow-ledge ourselves your obedient servants to serve to extent of our abilities with all readiness, thus desiring God to direct & guide your councills in all the greate & weighty difficul-ties & distress that are now on our hands, we Rest your humble servant,

                                          JOHN OSGOOD, Left.
                             In the name & behalf of our towne.
     "ANDOVER, 16 Feb. 1675."

(1) Mass. Archives, vol. 1xviii., p. 138.

172 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

Measures were taken as soon as possible to put the town in a state of defence; garrison(1) houses were built, and men appointed to defend them. A committee chosen to visit the town reported(2) it to be in a state of good defence:--

"In pursuance of your Honourable Councills orders dated March ye 15, 1675-6 appointing us ye subscribers as a committy for Essex to view & consider ye severall townes & to propose ye thoughts of what may bee advisable: In order for ye securing of ye people & their planting in this time of trou-ble: Wee met at Andover, where wee found twelve substantial Garrisons well fitted: which wee hope through God's blessing may bee sufficient to secure them from any sudden surprisal of the enemy to which Garrisons ye inhabitants of ye town are respectively appointed.

               "By your humble servants
                                 JOHN APPLETON.
                                 JOHN PUTNAM.
                                 THOMAS CHANDLER.
     "29th March 1675-6."(3)

It was also ordered by the Court that a fence of stockades, or stones, be built eight feet high from Charles River to Concord River, in Billerica, thence connecting by way of the large ponds with Merrimack River, which river, down "to the bay" with the bay would complete the circuit of some twenty towns, including Andover. These would be "environed round for the security and safety under God of the people, their houses goods & catell from the rage and fury of the heathen enemy."

The Andover people did not approve this means of defence, or feel willing to contribute men to guard the line of forts. They thought a more effectual protection would be to streng-then the garrisons and to send out, with parties of

(1) "These were built of hewn logs which lay flat upon each other; the ends being fitted for the purpose, were inserted in grooves cut in large posts erected at each corner. They inclosed an area of several square rods, were raised to the height of the roof of a common dwelling-house, and at two or more of the corners were placed boxes where sentinels kept watch. In some cases, several small buildings raised for the temporary accommodation of families were within the inclosure."-- Bouton's "History of Concord".
(2) Mass. Archives, vol. lxviii., p. 184.
(3) Ibid., p. 174.

ANDOVER IN THE EARLY INDIAN WARS. 173

workmen in the fields, guards of soldiers. They say that their planting grounds are mostly "environed by swampy and boughie ground," and are therefore comparatively easy to defend. They pray the Council to order the men to "work in such companies as they shall judge meete for their safety and defence."

On the 18th of March [28th, N. S.], the Indians crossed the Merrimack and sent two scouts to Andover. What depredation they committed is not recorded, but the people in great alarm despatched post riders to Ipswich, one by night and one by day, to beg for help. Major Dennison, not slow to protect his kindred and friends, hastened forward sixty men and at once apprised the Council in Boston of the condition of things. He writes that "if he had received orders he might have brought off from Andover some of his brother Bradstreet's best things."  He commits the result to Heaven exclaiming, "Let God arise and our enemies be scattered."

But, in spite of all the vigilance and precautions, the Indians surprised the town at last. This was on the 8th [or 18th, N. S.] of April, 1676. In this attack, one of the soldiers, who had passed safely through the bloody Narragansett  fight in the winter, was slain within sight of his own dwelling.(1) It is not impossible that the savages knew who were the men in town that had helped to murder their brethren in the swamp fight; at any rate, they, on this day, whether by accident or design, took revenge on two of these. They directed their course to the house of George Abbot, one of the garrisons. Tradition says that they were seen crossing the river, and that Ephraim Stevens, a scout, gave the alarm.  The villagers fled to the garrisons; but the Abbot brothers were at work in the fields, and did not reach the shelter before the savages were upon them. Joseph Abbot, the soldier, a strong, athletic young man about twenty-four years of age, made a brave resistance, and killed one or more of the Indians, but was finally set upon by the whole band and cut down,-- the first, and perhaps the only, Andover soldier

(1) Site of the garrison-house on the estate of the present residence of Mr. John Abbot, Central Street, west of the South Meeting-house.

174  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

ever slain in the town. His brother Timothy, a lad of thirteen years, was taken captive. The savages then hurried off, leaving the smitten household to its desolation. That such desolation ever came to the now peaceful spot it is difficult to realize. In the calm of a summer afternoon, the writer of this sketch stood upon the ground once trodden by the hurrying feet of the fleeing citizens and red with the blood of  the slain. Now the scene is tranquil, and bears no token that any deed of violence was ever done here. Broad fields stretch away, just greened after the mower's scythe; elm, ash, and maple, with the friendly apple tree, make a pleasant shade, and through their foliage the sun streaming in, tessellates the grass with a shifting carpet of light and shade.  Birds nest and sing undisturbed; from distant fields come sounds of labor; the cattle are driven into the farm-yard; the lengthening shadows and the striking of the meeting-house clock remind of the evening hour. In vain we try to call back to this serenity the struggle, the blood, the groans of the battle, the tears and the lament for the youthful dead. May they never come again to any home of Old Andover!

Besides their bloody work at George Abbot's, the savages also attacked the house of Edmond Faulkner, and wreaked  their vengeance on dumb brutes. Their attack is described  by the Rev. Increase Mather, in his "History of King Philip's War":--

"In the beginning of April they did some mischief at Chelmsford and Andover, where a small party of them put the town into a great fright, caused the people to fly into garrison houses, killed one man and burnt one house, and to show what barbarous creatures they are, they exercised cruelty towards dumb creatures.  They took a cow, knocked off one of her horns, cut out her tongue, and so left the poor creature in great misery. They put an horse, ox, and cow into a hovel and then set it on fire only to show how they are delighted in exercising cruelty."

     The most interesting account, however, is from the pen of one of Andover's own citizens. It is a letter to the Council, describing the situation of the town,-- its anxiety and distress and praying to be aided to maintain a sufficient guard.  The letter bears marks of haste and trepidation, and is, even

ANDOVER IN THE EARLY INDIAN WARS. 175

more than most of the old records, difficult to decipher. Possibly some words have not been exactly made out in the following copy:--

"TO THE HONOURED COUNCILL. The malitiah of our towne do humbly request your Honours to consider our condition the enemy has twice assaulted us; the last was Saturday last, who slew a lusty (?) younge mane & took his brother a youth & carried him away: we have had sum fforces to helpe us bute the enemy cannot be found when we goe after them; and wee ffind that wee are not abell to goe to worke about Improveing oure lands but are liable to bee cutt off nor are we able to raise .... men at our charge to defend ourselves wee fear greatly that wee shall not bee able to live in the towne to Improve our lands to raise a subsistence without som force be kept above us upon the river of merrimack & to Concord river, which being speedily & well defended with a competent quantity of soldiers all the Townes within might be in sum reasonable safty to follow theyre Imployes to raise corne & persue theyre catell .... [we] thought if one third off the men of each towne did attend that service so the other might bee in sum reasonable safty about their work, for now we are so distressed to thinke that our men are liable to bee shot whenever we stirr from our houses & our children taken by the cruell enemy, itt doe so distress us that wee know not what to doe, iff sum defence bee not made by ye forces above us wee must remove off iff we can tell where, before we have lost all lives & catell & horses by the enemy; we are compleatly able to fende ourselves in our garison iff we have warning to rest in, but otherwise out off oure house we are in continuall danger."(1)

     The letter goes on to say that the town of Andover, being
    a guard to the towns below, ought not in its distress to bear
    the whole burden of keeping a guard sufficient, but should
    receive help. It concludes :--

      "Praying God to directe & counsel you we rest.
                     Your humbell servantes
                             JOHN OSGOOD, Left.
     "ANDOVER 11: 10, 76."

     The captive carried away from Andover-- the boy Timothy
    Abbot-- was brought back in August by a squaw who took
    pity on his mother. His return is mentioned in Cobbet's

          (1) Mass. Archives, vol. 1xviii., p. 202.
 
 
 
 

    176 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

"New England Deliverances": "And Good-wife Abbot's boy of Andover was brought home, almost starved, by a poor squaw that had always been tender to him whilst in captivity. "

Hubbard says: "He was much pined with hunger."(1)

In this attack, the Indians also wounded(2) Roger Marks, another soldier of the Narragansett fight (son-in-law of Nicholas Holt). "About two months after this," says "Abbot's  History," quoting from Mr. Symmes's Thanksgiving sermon,  "the Indians surprised and captivated Mr. Haggit and two of  his sons."  But, although this may be correct and the persons  named made captive in Andover, there is no evidence of their being then residents of the town. No such name is found in the list of residents, 1678, and it is not till 1679 that Moses Haggit of Ipswich bought land southwest of Blanchard's  [since Hagget's] Pond, and agreed to pay church and town  rates as a citizen. It is not unlikely, however, that in the summer of 1676, the Haggits, father and sons, came from Ipswich to Andover to look at the land and arrange for the purchase, which may have been delayed on account of their captivity. The remoteness of the region from the town, and its proximity to the Indian resorts about Wamesit, especially its nearness to the pond, which would attract the Indians for fishing, rendered them liable to attack. A garrison house was built in this section at an early period. On account of the losses sustained by the town this year, the General Court abated their county rates. The attacks threatened to greatly injure the plantations. Many families were about to remove from Andover, there being a scarcity of corn and no security in planting. Lieutenant Osgood wrote at this time to the Council, praying them to take measures to prevent the desertion of the town. There were, consequently, garrisons and guards stationed across the country. The following is an extract from a report of them:--

(1) Timothy Abbot, when master of a family, never allowed a child to say he was hungry, saying that they did not know the meaning of the word hunger.  He lived on the present homestead of Mr. Asa A. Abbot and Mr. Sylvester Abbot.
(2) Mr. Symmes's Thanksgiving Sermon, 1768. Drake's Annals and Antiquities of Boston.
 
 
 
 

       ANDOVER IN THE EARLY INDIAN WARS. 177

      "Between Exeter & Haverhill a Garrison and 70 men.
      "Near Andover a garrison and 40 men.
      "At Pawtucket near Wamesit 'already settled.'
      "Between Chelmsford & Concord a garrison & 40 men.
      "Between Concord & Sudbury a garrison & 40 men.
      "Between Sudbury & Medfield a garrison & 40 men.
      "South side of Medfield a garrison & 40 men."(1)

     There was ordered also a "flying or moving army of three
    hundred men," one hundred of them to be friendly Indians.

     There was from time to time more or less call for soldiers
    to serve out of town; some were impressed, or volunteered
    for an expedition in the summer of 1677, to the region of the
    Kennebec River. The company, under the command of Capt. Benjamin Swett, fell into an ambush(2) at Black Point,
    Scarborough, and were cut off. Their leader and many men
    were slain.

     The following list of the slain is found in the Andover
    records:--

     "Killed by Indians June 29 1677 John, son of Joseph & Mary
    Parker.
     "John, son of Edward & Elizabeth Phelps.
     "James, son of Nathan & Mary Parker.
     "Daniel Blackhead, servant of Christopher Osgood."

     In the year 1677, Mr. Dudley Bradstreet was made Captain of the foot company in Andover. He took vigorous measures for defending the town, petitioning the General Court to increase the penalty for not working "in companies" and to compel all the "towns to keep out a small party to range ye outskirts whereby ye inhabitants may in their spirits be more settled and goe about their work for(3) their English and Hay harvest."

     After the defeat and death of King Philip, the hostile spirit subsided, and for a series of years there was a time of rest and comparative security. But the Revolution in England,

(1)  Mass. Archives, vol. 1xviii., page 251.
(2)  Southgate's History of Scarborough.
(3)  Mass, Archives, vol. 1xix., page 152.
                              12

178  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

1689, and the wars(1) of England and France embroiled the colonies, and the Indians were drawn into the contest, mainly acting with the French.

In 1689, the General Court made a change in the militia of  Essex County which was objected to by the Andover inhabitants as prejudicial to their interests. They petitioned for a different organization of the troops:--

"TO THE HONOURED GFNERALL COURT now sitting in Charles Towne this ninth day of March 1689-90, the petition of ye townes of Andover & Boxford, Humbly Sheweth.—

"That whereas ye Humble petitioners have been informed that this Hon’d Court hath taken off ye Towne of Boxford with other townes from ye upper Regiment in Essex & joyned them to another Regiment which wee Humbly conceive is greatly prejudicial to ye Country & to or Sd Townes in pticlar, by reason we lyinge soe neare to each other & ready upon all occasions of ye enemy's approach to relieve each other, which if disjoyned wee cannot doe, & for many other Reasons we humbly pray that this Honoured Court would please to take into their farther & serious consideration, this our petition. viz, that Boxford might still continue as part of ye upper Regiment in Essex, & farther yt our Souldiers may bee free from any press that may happen till ye Indian enemy be subdued or quieted, in Granting of which ye Honrs humble petitioners shall as in Duty bound for ever pray &c.
                              DUDLEY BRADSTREET.
                     "for     JOHN OSGOOD.
                    Andover   JOHN BARKER.
                              STEPHEN JOHNSON.
     "MOSES TYLER by order & in ye name of ye Town of Boxford."

     During the year 1689, the following deaths are recorded in
    the town books as having occurred either in the wars abroad,
    or by savage violence at home:--

     (1)The following classification of the wars may be convenient for reference:--
       1688-1698. Governor Phipps. King William's War.
       1703-1713. Governor Dudley. Queen Anne's War.
       1722-1725. Lieutenant-governor Dummer. Ralle's War.
       1744-1749. Governor Governor Shirley. King George's War.
       1749-1761. Shirley. French and Indian War.
                  Governor Pownal.  French and Indian War.
                  Governor Bernard. French and Indian War.
       Lieutenant-governor Hutchinson. French and Indian War.

ANDOVER IN THE EARLY INDIAN WARS. 179

"Lieut. John Stevens at Casko March 5 1689.
"Eleazar Streaton a servant & kinsman of Dea. John Frie died at ye eastward at Fort Ann Mch 15 1688-9.
"John Peters killed by the Indians Aug. 14, 1689.
" Andrew Peters killed by the Indians Aug. 14, 1689."

Early in 1690, active measures were taken by the Government for the defence of the frontier towns. By order(1) of the Governor and Council, May 14th, eighty troopers were to be detached from the several companies of the Essex Regiment, which was in command of Maj. Robert Pike. These troopers were to rendezvous at Andover on the 16th, and forty of them, under command of Captain Davis, to go to the defence of Concord; forty to be under Capt. Thomas Chandler, of Andover. On the 28th of May, it was further ordered, that two hundred soldiers well appointed with arms and ammunition be raised "for secur-ity of Bradford, Andover, Dunstable, Chelmsford, Groton, Lancaster, and Marlborough." These, it was ordered, "should constantly be kept together and improved moving up and down in their respective stations on the outside of the towns whereto they shall be assigned for defence of such towns, and the frontier towns shall send out one or two of the inhabitants who are acquainted with the woods for daily scouting." The following action was also taken in regard to the raising of more men in Andover, in answer to the petition of Captain Osgood:--

"It is granted that in case the captain of the foot company see it beneficial to them to make up said troop to the number of forty out of the foot company, of persons sufficient to attend such service otherwise the troops there to be serted into the Foot company and that to be divided, the new company to nominate their own officers and to send down their names to the Council to be allowed and commissionated before the last day of this inst."

     On the 28th of May, Capt. Thomas Chandler was appointed
    "to command the company that are to be impressed for the
    defence of the frontier towns from Dunstable eastward as far
    as Bradford, downwards, which company is to consist of forty
    troopers and thirty foot-soldiers."  Notwithstanding all this
    scouting and ranging of troopers and foot-soldiers who by day

              (1) General Court Records, May, 1690.
 
 
 

    180  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

    and by night were active and alert, travelling from town was
    unsafe. There were twenty fordable places in the Merrimack
    River between Wamesit and Haverhill, and, at any moment,
    the Indians were liable to cross and make an attack.

In 1696 (records the Rev. John Pike in his journal(1) ), -"old John Hoyt of Amesbury and young Peters of Andover were slain upon the road between Andover and Haverhill."  This Hoyt had before suffered from the Indians who had "plundered and despoiled him and burnt his house.(2) These deaths are registered in Andover records:--

"John Hoyt of Almsbury was killed here by Indians, Aug. 13, 1696. "
" William Peters killed by Indians Aug. 13, 1696."

On the twenty-second of February, 1697-8 (0. S.), the fourth of March, 1698 (N. S.), occurred the most considerable attack ever made on the town of Andover. In this attack, retribution followed and (it would seem), deliberate vengeance was taken for the crimes of one man whose wickedness was thus the means of bringing suffering on his innocent townsmen.  Capt. Pascoe Chubb, the son-in-law of Mr. Edmond Faulkner, two years before this attack in the same month, had committed an act of treach-ery toward the Indians. He was in command of Fort Pemaquid (which in 1693, had been built by Capt. John March),(3) and held a conference with a delegation of Penobscot Indians in regard to the exchange of prisoners. While the council, about a dozen Indians, and as many of the English, were in session, Chubb having previously made the plot, and had the Indians supplied with strong liquor to the verge of drunkenness, gave orders for a massacre.  The English soldiers fell upon the unsuspecting victims and slew several, two chiefs among them. Subsequently a force of French and Indians attacked the fort and threatened death with torture to the captain, if he should not surrender.  In his terror and remorse, he forgot his honor as commander, and in the most cowardly manner, gave up the fort,

(1) Mass. Historical Society's Proceedings, 1875, "Journal of Mr. Pike."
(2) Mass. Col. Records, 1695, June 15.
(3) Of Newbury,-- the same who began to build the vessel at Andover.

AND0VER IN THE EARLY INDIAN WARS. 181

stipulating only for personal safety. For this act of treason, as it was almost thought to be, he was cashiered, and put in Boston jail, whence he was released and allowed to live in seclusion at Andover, owing to the petitions and influence of friends.

Following is a petition made by him from the jail(1):--

"TO THE GREAT AND GENLL COURT OF HIS MAJESTYS PROVINCE OF THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY IN NEW ENGLAND Assembled att Boston by adjournment November 18th 1696.

"The Petition of Pasco Chubb late Commander of his Majestys  ffort William Henry at Pemaquid, Humbly sheweth.

"That yr Petitioner stands committed a Prisoner in Boston Goale for his Late surrendering & delivering up the aforesd Fort and Stores thereto belonging unto his Majestys enemies ....

"And whereas yr Petitioner is a very poore man, having a wife and children to Looke after wch by reason of his confine-ment & poverty are reduced to a meane and necessitous condition having not wherewithall either to defray his present necessary charges or to relieve his Indigent family .....

"Your Petitioner therefore humbly prays that this high and hon(1) Court will please to consider the premises soe as that he may now either be Brought to his Tryall or else upon giving sufficient Bayle be delivered from his present confinement, whereby he may be enabled to take some care of his poore family for their subsistence in this hard & deare winter season."

The Indians, doubtless in revenge for his cruelties (although Hutchinson thinks it was by "mear accident"), attacked the house where he was, and killed him and his wife.  "It is not probable they had any knowledge of the place(2) of  his abode," says Hutchinson; "but it caused them greater joy than the taking of many towns." "Rapin," he goes on to  say, "would have pronounced such an event the immediate judgment of Heaven. Voltaire, that in the place of supposed safety, the man could not avoid his destiny."

All the facts, however, go to indicate that it was the deliberate act of Indian revenge. The attack was led by the fierce and implacable foe of the whites, Assacumbuit. At this time

 (1) Mass. Archives, vol. lxx., 307.
 (2) In North Andover.

182 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

was made the attack on Captain Bradstreet's house, which is elsewhere(1) narrated. The tradition goes that the leader of the Indians had given his promise to an Indian, a friend of the Bradstreet family, that if he would guide them to the house, none of the family should be hurt. But he, it seems, could not, or did not, wholly control his company, for they killed the guest and relative of the family, "Major Wade's son of Mystick," and were about to carry off some of the household as prisoners. But, the leader interposing, these were releas-ed unharmed. This attack is mentioned (with a different reason for the Indians' mercy) by Cotton Mather in the "Magnalia:"—-

"The Winter was the severest that ever was in the memory of Man. And yet February must not pass without a stroke upon Pemaquid Chub,(2) whom the Government had mercifully permitted after his examination to retire unto his habitation in Andover. As much out of the way as to Andover there came above Thirty Indians about the middle of February as if their errand had been for vengeance upon Chub whom (with his wife) they now massacred there. They took two or three horses and slew three or four persons; and Mr. Thomas Barnard the worthy minister of the Place very narrowly escaped their fury. But in the midst of their Fury there was one piece of mercy the like whereof had never been seen before: For they had got Colonel Dudley Bradstreet into their hands, but perceiving the town Mustering to follow them, their Hearts were so changed that they dismissed their captives without any further Damage unto their Persons. Returning back by Haverhill, they killed a couple," etc.

Judge Sewall(3) records the same attack:--

"Feb. 24, 97-98 --Feb. 22 at Break of day Andover is surprised.  Lt. Col. Bradstreet's house rifled, his kinsman Wade slain, Capt. Chubb and his wife slain and three more. Some houses and Barns burnt and in one a considerable quantity of corn and twenty head of Cattel. Pulpit cushions taken away, fired but not quenched."

The Rev. John Pike,(4) in his journal, also chronicles the same attack:--

         (1) Chapter I., p. 130.
         (2) Mather's opinion concerning the cause here appears.
         (3) Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., Fifth Series, vol. v.
         (4) Mass. Hist. Soc. Proceedings, 1875.

ANDOVER IN THE EARLY IND1AN WARS. 183

"Feb. 22, 97-98, about 30 Indians came to Andover, took Col. Bradstreet's house and two more, killed Capt. Pasco Chub and his wife, Maj. Wade's son of Mystick and two others. Carried Col. Bradstreets family a little way & upon Cond: Released them. As they returned by Haverhill they met with Jonath: Hains and Sam. Ladd with ye elder sons. The two fathers were slain & the sons carried away, but young Hains soon after Returned which was his second escape from the enemy in less than two years time."

     They also attacked the house of Mr. Timothy Johnson,
    and killed his daughter, Miss Penelope Johnson, a young
    lady of nineteen years. The explicit statements of contem-
    poraries, noting the events in diary, agree in the date, Feb-
    ruary 22, and 1697, or March 4, 1698. Some town histories
    have made the statement that there were two attacks: one in
    February, and one in March, but this error must have arisen
    from a confusion of dates in some of the earlier histories,
    owing to the difference of writing in the "old style" and the
    "new style."

     In this attack some of the town records were carried off or
    destroyed, as appears from the following vote:--

     "1698. Voted that a committee be chosen to receive anew the records of the town lands, according to what papers may be found that have been upon record before; our town records being taken away by the enemy Indians."

     The hostilities between the English and French were nominally put an end to by the Treaty of Ryswick, in 1697; but the towns were by no means relieved of their apprehensions of Indian attacks, since savages, once maddened with the fury of slaughter, could not be immediately quieted by treaties made thousands of miles away, and sometimes from that very cause they rallied for a final and retaliative blow. The interval of rest had, therefore, been brief, when the formal renewal of the wars of the European nations again brought fresh danger to the struggling colonies.

     "Queen Anne's War" was under the control in America
    of her Majesty's Governor of the Province, Joseph Dudley.
    The military expeditions were mainly to the eastern fron-
    tiers. Col. John March was obliged to give up his ship-
    building operations in Andover to enter on active military
 
 
 

    184  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

    service. For his valorous conduct he received a tribute from
    the government:--

     "Nov. 30, 1703: Resolved passed us the house of Representa-
    tives,-- that there be allowed & paid out of ye publick treasury to Lieut. Coll. March the sum of Fifty pounds for the brave defence which by his conduct was made of her Majesty's Fort at Casco Bay when lately attacked by ye French & Indians & in. consideration of his wounds & damage which he then received."

     There are accounts in the town records of extra provision
    made for supplies of ammunition; also, by order of the government, the soldiers were furnished with snow-shoes; one hundred and twenty-five pairs were ordered for the North Reg-
    iment of Essex.(1) Four block-houses were built on the
    Merrimack River, two of which were in Andover. The following orders(2) were issued to the military officer at Andover, Capt. Christopher Osgood:--

     "I am directed by his Excellency our Governor to build two, (3) block houses in your town upon the brink of Merrimack river, one at the fording place called Deare's jump and one at a fording place commonly called Mr. Petters wading place both Places I am informed is in the Precinct of your company there-fore I order that you build them twelve foot wide & fifteen foot long with .... at one end & well covered that the men may be dry in wet weather, as to the charge I am not informed how it might be, but have desired Lieut. Barker to inform you how wee at Newbury have built ours," etc.

     Captain Osgood impressed ten men from his company,
    and in six weeks had the buildings done.(4) While some
    worked, others guarded, and were on the scout along the
    river.

     In July, 1706, Capt. Benjamin Stevens went in command of
    a company into the woods in "quest of the Indian enemy,"
    and, while he was gone, his house was broken into, and some

         (1) General Court Records, 1704, Nov. 18. Mass. Archives, vol. lxxi., pp. 67 and 152.
         (2) Mass. Archives, vol. lxxi., p. 69.
         (3) Two, three, and four houses are spoken of in different documents.
         (4) See petition in Records of General Court; also, Mass. Archives, vol. lxxi., p. 69.~

AND0VER IN THE EARLY INDIAN WARS. 185

things stolen, among them five certificates of wages due him and his soldiers for service in January and February. He petitioned for five other certificates, to be delivered him by the treasurer. Three of the certificates were ordered to be paid by the constables of Boston, one by the constable of Bradford, another by the constable of Haverhill. The total amount was L84 3s. 9d.(1)

The following from the town records shows what stock of ammunition was in the town in 1713:--

"Feb. ye 20th 1712-13. This may sertifye those selectmen that shall succeed us: that where as some time since our Town Stock of Ammunition was divided to Sundry persons, viz to Capt. John Chandler, Capt. Christopher Osgood, and some others we the subscribers have gathered it together all but some small parsels, the which we have given Ensign Ephraim Stevens for to gather and put to the Rest, as soon as he can:  And we have left all the Town Stock of Ammunition of powder, bullets, and flints with Left. John Aslebe for one year and then to be taken care of by ye select men for the time being. And the powder we left at Left. John Aslebes is one hundred and sixty-six pounds 166; and of bullets four hundred, twenty and eight pounds 428, and of flints thirteen pounds: wanting one ounce, (13). And we have Left the keas of the Town Stock of Ammunition with Ensign Ephraim
Stevens, to be at ye selectmen's service, when they shall have ocation for them, and there is two dry casks of the Towns left standing on ye chest that the Amonition is locked up in. One is a small powder cask headed up at both ends, the other open at one head.

      "Signed the day and year abovesaid.
                     EPHRAIM STEVENS
                     GEORGE ABB0TT         Selectmen
                     JOHN OSGOOD              of
                     EPHRAIM FOSTER        Andover."
                     NEHEMIAH ABBOTT

     The towns were never safe. In winter the Indians came
    on snow-shoes, and in summer by the rivers, plundering and
    killing, and then disappearing as suddenly as they had come,
    plunging into the depths of the forests. In the winter of
    1705, Governor Dudley wrote to Col. Saltonstall in regard to
    being prepared to meet the enemy:--

                Mass. Archives, "Petitions," 1704.

186  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

     "I pray you to give direction that your snow-shoe men from
    Newbury to Andover be ready at a moment's warning till the
    weather break up, then we may be quiet awhile."

     In the autumn of 1724 (September 25th) a petition was
    sent to the General Court to commission Capt. Benjamin
    Stevens, of Andover, leader of an expedition to Winipeseog
    Pond, "to discover the Indians camping places & haply find
    their canoes & by what or what manner they come down upon us in summer."

Of all the tales of Indian warfare connected with old Andover history, the one which has the most melancholy and romantic interest is that of Chaplain Jonathan Frye, who was mortally wounded in the year 1725, in the famous Lovewell's fight at Pequauket. He wandered for some time in the woods, and, as is supposed, died fifty miles from any English settlement, and twenty miles from the fort whence his company had marched. The English were at prayers when they first discovered the approach of an enemy. The young chaplain (he was only twenty) was ready to fight as well as to pray. Says a record: "Mr. Frye and another scalped the first Indian who was slain." The scalps were kept, as a reward was paid for them. A history of the fight, taken from the testimony of an eye-witness, was written soon after by the Rev. Thomas Symmes, of Bradford. The quaint language is worth preserving:--

"About the middle of the Afternoon, the Ingenious Mr. Jonathan Frie only son of Capt. James Frie of Andover, a young Gentleman of a Liberal Education, and who was chaplain to the company and was greatly Beloved by them for his excellent Performances and good Behavior and who fought with Undaunted Courage till that time of Day was mortally wounded. But when he could fight no longer, he prayed audibly severall times for the Preservation and Success of the Residue of the Company."

     Is there anything more pathetic in our annals of youthful
    heroism than this plain, unvarnished tale of the young chap-
    lain of Andover? It shows not only how dominant over the
    spirit of the time was the moral and religious sentiment,
    which alone lifts the battle-field above the plane of brute
    force, and redeems its passions from utter fiendishness, but

ANDOVER IN THE EARLY INDIAN WARS. 187

it pays an affectionate tribute to the rare qualities of the young man. He must have had a character remarkably uniting manly and Christian virtues, who could, at twenty, act as religious guide and at the same time comrade-in-arms of a company of frontier savage-hunters (of however excellent material it might be made), and secure the common respect and affection.

     A week after the fight the Rev. Mr. Symmes pronounced
    "A SERMON OCCASIONED BY THE FALL OF THE BRAVE CAPT.
    JOHN LOVEWELL AND SEVERAL OF HIS VALIANT COMPANY IN
    THE LATE HEROIC ACTION."  This was printed and prefaced
    by the historical narrative before alluded to. There can be
    no doubt that to listen to this discourse, referring to their
    townsman's tragic death, the Andover people went in large
    numbers. In fact the discourse may be regarded as largely
    commemorative of that special loss, Mr. Symmes having in-
    timate acquaintance with Andover; his sister being the
    wife(1) of Capt. Benjamin Stevens. The text of the sermon
    was, "How are the mighty fallen and the weapons of war
    perished." 2 Sam. i. 27.

     This sermon repays perusal. It is thoughtful and forcible, full of odd turns of expression that rival some of old Fuller's "Good Thoughts in Bad Times," and withal it has a martial ring, characteristic of the preaching of these times; when the wars of the Israelites furnished more acceptable texts than the gospel of peace:--

     "We must not be Disheartened & cast down because a crew of Salvages have killed a few Brave Men. No, verily, its beneath a Man, much more a Christian whose heart is fixed trusting in the Lord, to be thus affected. Such news should not daunt and terrify a soldier, but whet his Courage. Especially it should rouse ‘em on such occasions to Rally forth and come to March with utmost expedition to Recover if possible our Dear Breth-ren that lie Wounded and without Relief in a Howling Wilder-ness, that they mayn't Perish with Famine or fall into the hands of a Barbarous Enemy, to be killed over again & Tortured with Indian Cruelty,

           (1) "Here 1yes what was mortal of Mrs. Susannah Stevens widow of Benjamin Stevens, Esq., and Daughtr of ye Revd. Mr. Zechariah Symmes of Bradford who died July 30 1753, in ye 83 year of Her Age."
                         Epitaph-- Old Burying Ground.

    188  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

and also to give Christian Burial to the Remains of our Departed Heroes ..... We that tarry at home must get into the Mount and Pray for em'. A Good Woman in her Closet (tho' she's afraid to take a Gun in her hand) may serve her Country to a very good purpose even in respect of the War as really as the Magistrate at the Council Board or the most daring and well advised commander in the open Field in a thro' engagement. For Prayer and Faith always were, are, and will be the Church's Best Weapons."(1)

     The place of the fight was on the northeast end of Saco
    Pond, on the edge of a wood" where there were few trees
    and scarce any brush." There were about forty English engaged, and twice as many Indians, by whom the English had
    been ambushed. The fight lasted all day, when the savages
    retreated. Seventeen of the English made their way back
    through the woods to the fort at Ossipee Lake; twelve died
    in the woods, and their bodies were afterwards found and
    buried where they lay; three were "lost by the way and
    never found."

     The English, retreating from the fight at the wood, fell
    back upon the pond, and to its waters the wounded crept, to
    slake their thirst and staunch their wounds; crimsoning the
    water with their blood. Some crawled off into the thick
    wood and died there, while a few, wounded but able to walk,
    started on their way toward the camp. Among the latter was
    Chaplain Frye. After journeying painfully for some miles
    with his friends, Eleazar Davis, of Concord, and Lieutenant
    Farwell, of Dunstable, he begged them to save themselves
    and leave him to his fate, "not to hinder themselves any
    longer for his sake; for that he found himself Dying." Then
    he lay down, "telling them he should never rise more." He
    gave a message to be delivered to his father, that he "ex-
    pected in a few hours to be in eternity and that he was not
    afraid to die." "Whereupon," says the record, "they left
    him; and this Hopeful Gentleman Mr. Frie who had the
    Journal of the March in his pocket has not been heard of
    since."

     This incident of the abandoning a dying comrade in the
    wilderness forms the ground-work of Hawthorne's tale of

              (1) The Italics are in the original.
 
 
 
 

       AND0VER IN THE EARLY INDIAN WARS. 189

    "Roger Malvin's Burial."  No one who compares the facts
    with the romance can fail to see that in the psychological
    and ethical studies of this parting of Chaplain Frye with his
    comrades, the greatest of New England romance writers
    found the materials for his tale. He himself says it was an
    incident of Lovell's fight in 1725, and that the characters
    may be recognized notwithstanding the substitution of fic-
    titious names. The only recorded instance of a comrade's
    being deliberately left is that of the chaplain from Andover.
    Therefore the probability amounts to certainty that with
    name and age changed, Jonathan Frye is Roger Malvin, and
    Eleazar Davis, who survived to reach home, his comrade,
    Reuben Bourne; the details, and the subsequent history of
    their lives being varied by the romancer's imagination to suit the purposes of his story.

The reluctance of Reuben to leave his dying friend; that  friend's persuading him to do so, appealing to his affection for his betrothed, the daughter of Reuben, and holding out the hope that he may yet come back with a party and rescue the comrade whom he leaves (a hope which Roger, while holding it out as a motive to his friend to quit him for the present, knows to be vain); the final leave-taking; Reuben Bourne's life-long remorse for this act, his final unwitting expiation of the sin that haunted his imagination, by shooting his own son, by accident, on the very spot,-- these are all evolved from the poet-philosopher's musing on the fate of Chaplain Frye, and the words of the ancient chronicler, "Whereupon, they left him."

"Roger. 'There is not two days' life in me Reuben, and I will no longer burden you with my useless body, when you can scarcely support your own. Your wounds are deep and your strength is failing fast, yet, if you hasten onward alone you may be preserved.  For me there is no hope, and I will await death here.'

"Reuben. 'Should I therefore leave you to perish and to lie unburied in the wilderness!  No, if your end be in truth approaching, I will watch by you and receive your parting words. I will dig a grave here by the rock, in which if my weakness overcomes me, we will rest together; or if Heaven gives me strength, I will seek my way home.'
 
 
 

    190 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

     "Roger. 'In the cities and wherever men dwell they bury their dead in the earth: they hide them from the sight of the living; but here, where no step may pass perhaps for a hundred years, wherefore should I not rest beneath the open sky covered only by the oak leaves when the autumn winds shall strew them?’"

     Thus it was that Jonathan Frye rested, the forest around
    him, the sky above. On the spot where tradition says he
    died, now surrounded by the homes and busy industries of
    the city which commemorates his name, a wild rose-tree
    sprang and flourished, and its annual flowers, plucked with a
    half superstitious feeling by the visitor, have been a more
    effectual memorial than storied urn or animated bust."

     A ballad written in 1725, called the "Most-beloved song
    in all New England" contains this stanza alluding to Mr.
    Frye:

       "Our worthy Captain Lovewell among them there did die
       They killed Lieutenant Robbins and wounded good young Frye
       Who was our English chaplain he many indians slew
       And some of them he scalped when bullets round him flew."

     The large elm tree which has stood in beauty and verdure until within a few years, and whose trunk now remains, on the roadside near the birthplace of Chaplain Frye, was set out by his hands,-- (a sapling from the wood) the year of his death. Mr. Frye was engaged to be married to a young girl whom his parents did not regard with approval as suited to him in point of birth and fortune.

     It is said by a writer,(1) whose residence in Andover seventy-five years ago made him familiar with the then current traditions, and who was an enthusiast in the search for the romance of history, that the enlistment of young Frye in military service arose from the conflict of duties and feelings which was caused by his parents' disapproval of his love. The story is thus told:--

"Among the number who fell was Mr. Jonathan Frye, a student in divinity, who was Lovewell's chaplain and who had joined this little band from some affair of the heart. He made him-self conspicuous in the fight, and as described, acted with the reckless

        (1) Samuel L. Knapp's Lectures on American Literature. He was Preceptor of Franklin Academy, 1805.

        ANDOVER IN THE EARLY INDIAN WARS. 191

    valour, which is often found to belong to such a state of mind.  The fair one to whom he was thought by his friends to be imprudently attached was not content with the praises others were ready to bestow upon the lost object of her affections; and, although only fourteen years of age, struck her harp in mournful lays upon her Philander's fate and produced an elegy which has survived to this day; being lately found in an ancient manuscript of a gentleman of the native place of the lovers and lately transmitted to me. If it does not burn with a Sapphic blaze it gives more of the light of history than all the odes of the Lesbian dame on her lost Phaon. Miss Susannah Rogers calls on her muse to assist her in describing the youthful warrior, who afar off was resting without his shroud on the battle-field of glory. She says that his person was comely, his age just twenty-one-- his genius of the highest excellence, and that he was the only son of his parents, beloved by all who knew him. His valor, his piety, his prayers amidst the fight, his wounds all bleeding, pass in review before her streaming eyes and she sees the howling wilderness where he fell. She notes the fortitude and resigna-tion with which he died or rather his exhibition of it, when they left him to die, for he was not dead when his companions were under the necessity of leaving him to perish. The parental grief is not forgotten and her own loss is touched upon with truth and delicacy ..... This elegy of the bereaved fair is too long for my purpose."

     Although too long for a lecture on American Literature, it is, however long and however devoid of poetic fire, properly to be preserved in any sketch of Andover history. And surely it is not to be regarded lightly, though its composition may provoke a smile. If a town wept the fate of this fallen brave, and spoke his praise, surely the grief of this poor girl whose love had been of so melancholy an ending, in whatever phrases it finds vent, should awaken sympathy and excite compassion. Her address to the parents of her lover is certainly evidence of a heart free from malice and moved to sympathy even with those who scarcely acknowledged her right to sympathy.

        THE MOURNFUL ELEGY ON MR. JONATHAN FRYE. 1725.

           "Assist ye muses; help my quill
            Whilst floods of tears do down distil

    192  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

           Not from mine eyes alone, but all
           That hears the sad and doleful fall
           Of that young student Mr. Frye
           Who in his blooming youth did die.
           Fighting for his dear country's good
           He lost his life and precious blood.
           His father's only son was he
           His mother loved him tenderly
           And all that knew him loved him well
           For in bright parts he did excel
           Most of his age: for he was young
           Wounded and bleeding he was left
           And of all sustenance bereft
           Within the hunting desert great
           None to lament his dismal fate
           A sad reward, you'll say, for those
           For whom he did his life expose
           He marched out with courage bold
           And fought the Indians uncontrolled
           And many of the rebels slew.
           At last, a fatal bullet came
           And wounded this young man of fame
           And pierced him through and made him fall
           But he upon the Lord did call
           He prayed aloud; the standers-by
           Heard him for grace and mercy cry
           The Lord did hear and raised him so
           That he enabled was to go.
           For many days he homeward went
           Till he for food was almost spent
           Then to the standers-by declared
           Death did not find him unprepared.
           And there they left him in the wood
           Some scores of miles from any food
           Wandered and famished all alone
           None to relieve or hear his moan
           And there without all doubt did die--
            "And now I'll speak to Mr. Frye,
           Pray sir be patient; kiss the rod
           Remember this the hand of God
           Which has bereft you of your son.
           Your dear and lovely Jonathan
 
 
 
 

       ANDOVER IN THE EARLY INDIAN WARS. 193

           Although the Lord has taken now
           Unto himself your son most dear
           Resign your will to God and say
           'Tis God that gives and takes away;
           And blessed be his name; for he--
           For he has caused this to be.
           And now to' you, his mother dear
           Be pleased my childish lines to hear,
           Mother refrain from flowing tears;
           Your son is gone beyond your cares
           And safe at rest in Heaven above
           With Christ who was his joy and love,
           And in due time I hope you'll be
           With him to all eternity.
           Pray madam pardon this advice
           Your grief is great, mine not much less,
           And if these lines will comfort you
           I have my will, Farewell, adieu."

     A poem of much beauty and pathos has been written by
    Mr. Upham of New Hampshire, "On Visiting, the Scene of
    Lovewell's Fight." The following stanzas selected from it
    are a not inappropriate requiem for all the soldiers of our
    own and other towns who perished in the early Indian(1)
    wars:--

          "The bugle is silent, the war-whoop is dead,
          There's a murmur of waters and woods in their stead,
          And the raven and owl chant a symphony drear
          From the dark-waving pines o'er the combatants' bier.

          "Sleep, soldiers of merit, sleep, gallant of yore,
          The hatchet is fallen, the struggle is o'er;
          While the fir-tree is green and the wind rolls a wave
          The tear-drop shall brighten the turf of the brave!"
 

       (1) The history of the later Indian wars, 1744-1761, is separated from that of the first century, because it seems to connect more properly with the Revolutionary period, the same men being in service in the Revolution who had been trained in the old French War.

               13

 


HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER. by Sarah Loring Bailey, 1880
OCR editing by Phylis Holmes, scanned and OCRed by David Blackwell, further HTML editing by ____

 



    CHAPTER II.

    THE PART OF ANDOVER IN THE EARLY INDIAN WARS.

     In regard to the Indians who occupied the territory of Andover either for camping or for hunting ground, no record has been found. The sachem who acknowledged before the General Court in 1646 that he had made sale of the Cochichawick territory to Mr. Woodbridge and Mr. Edmond Faulkner, was Cutshamache or Cutshamakin, a dweller near Dorchester. What special claim he had to, or right to dispose of,
    the lands about Andover, does not appear. The following statement, taken from the "History of Dorchester," may be the explanation: "This chief appears to have been a mere tool in the hands of the colonial government, used for the purpose of deeding away Indian lands and acting as a spy upon the movements of neighboring Indians." He is said to have been a kinsman of Passaconaway, of the Agawam tribe, who made their camping places along the Merrimack from the mouth to Pentucket, or to Cochichawick. There are remains of an Indian burial-ground at West Andover, on the bank of the Merrimack, a mile or more above Lawrence. Skeletons of men, women, and children have been exhumed.(1) They were wrapped in hemlock bark. One was of a man of great size and powerful build. He had been buried with especial care, and, it is not unlikely, was a sachem or chief. Allusion is made in some of the ancient records of land sales and surveys, to a tract in this vicinity, originally laid out as "near Haverhill," and again "near Andover" and in the neighborhood of "Old Will's wigwam." Old Will was a name sometimes applied to Passaconaway. "Will's Hill" was between(2)

         (1) The graves were explored by Mr. Francis G. Sanborn, of Andover.
         (2) In the present limits of Middleton.
 

    164 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

Andover and Rowley. It may be that this Indian burying place marks one of the places of Passaconaway's abode, and that these are the bones of his tribe. In regard to him, Governor Thomas Dudley wrote in 1631, to the Countess of Lincoln: "Upon the river Merrimack is seated Sagamore Passaconaway, having under his command four or five hundred men, being esteemed by his countrymen a false fellow and by us a wich."

The one sole local name of an aboriginal resident is that of the Indian Roger. Standing on the spot known as Roger's Rock [the rock has been taken away], near the South Meetinghouse, or watching the course of Roger's Brook, it is not difficult with fancy's eye to see at our side, also viewing the landscape o'er, this ancient lord of the soil, clad in blanket and with belt of wampum, and bow and arrow, or arrayed in one of the "coates" of Indian admiration, and proud in the possession of a musket and powder and shot. It was no doubt the intention of our ancestors to deal fairly with the natives of the country, so far as they could consistently with their policy of getting the better part of that country for themselves. They bought the lands at such a price as the Indians valued them, and though, as in the purchase of Andover, many square miles of territory were got for a paltry sum, the buyers could hardly blame themselves for a transaction which, at the time, the sellers professed to be satisfied with. As a Christian commonwealth, also, the colony took measures for promoting the welfare of the Indians. Philan-
    thropists especially, devoted zealous labors to the conver-sion of the Indians from heathenism, and instructing them in the knowledge of the true God. Indians were taught the catechism and also classic lore, and were even admitted to Harvard College and ordained ministers of the gospel. But, put beside these the facts also that the masses of the tribes still kept to their traditions of tomahawk and war-whoop, that for the few who were converted and civilized, there were the many who learned all the vices and none of the virtues of the white man, and furthermore, that of the white men there were many whose vices exceeded their virtues, and it is easy to see how the problem of Indian treatment soon became one

ANDOVER IN THE EARLY INDIAN WARS. 165

    of the most difficult with which our forefathers had to deal.

    The missionaries to the Indians were enthusiasts, as, Eliot the great apostle, whose indefatigable zeal translated the Bible into the Indian language, but all whose efforts have failed to transmit to the present age a human being able to read the translation. These missionaries hoped all things and were ready to endure all things in their faith in ultimate results.  Through their labors, thousands of the natives were induced to adopt the Christian religion. Many of these forsook their forest-life and wigwam abodes and were gathered in small villages or settlements called "towns of the praying Indians."

    There they lived, in some measure like the whites, having a
    town government (their officers, magistrates, and teachers
    being Indians), and practising the useful arts. One of these
    towns, called Wamesit, was so near to the borders of Andover,
    that the Indians from it often had dealings with the Andover
    inhabitants. The Indian town is thus described by a writer
    in 1674:--

"Wamesit is the fifth praying town, and this place is situate upon Merrimack river, being a neck of land where Concord river falleth into Merrimack river. It is about 20 miles from Boston, North, north west and within 5 miles of Billerica, and as much from Chelmsford, so that it hath Concord river upon the west, north west and Merrimack river upon the north, north east. It hath about fifteen families, above 75 souls, 2500 acres, variety of fish, salmon, shads, lamprey eels, sturgeon, bass. There is a great confluence of Indians that usually resort to this place in the fishing seasons. Of these strange Indians, divers are vitious and wicked men and women, which Satan makes use of to obstruct the prosperity of religion here. The ruler of this people is called Numphow.(2) He is one of the blood of their chief sachems."

From this village (the present site of Lowell and suburbs) and from other places the Indians used to go up and down the Merrimack, and ascend its tributaries to fish or hunt. They used also to meet the English, while friendly relations existed, at certain places of conference for the purpose of

(1) Gookin's Historical Collections.
(2) In a trial of Indians accused of stirring up strife sometime after the attack on Andover, Timothy Abbott bore witness against this Indian Numphow.

166 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

trade or barter, exchanging skins, venison, game, for coats, powder and shot, trinkets, and bright colored beads, or wampum. A sail on the river today, from Lawrence (Old Andover, West Parish), to Lowell or to Haverhill, cannot fail to bring to vivid imagination pictures of those most ancient days, when the stream which now turns the wheels of great manufactories and keeps millions of spindles in motion, and which has all along its course thriving villages and populous cities, had its tranquil surface only now and then broken by the birch canoe or log raft, and the echoes of its hills disturbed only by the shout or war-whoop of the Indian, and the cries of wild bird or beast.

     Besides the villages of friendly or praying Indians, there
    were many individual instances of "converted Indians."
    These Indians were often taken into the settlers' families,
    and did house-work, or labored in the fields. In fact, all
    the more prudent of the natives at first submitted to the
    superior strength and wisdom of the English, making a
    virtue of necessity. At a meeting of the General Court,
    January, 1643, five Indian sachems, Cutshamache among
    the number, signed a paper promising "to be true and faith-
    ful to the said government to bee willing from time to time
    to be instructed in the knowledge of God." Yet under this
    submission was often a deep hatred of the invaders and a
    jealous fear of their powerful God. The English did much
    to increase this hatred, for not all were philanthropists, and in place of faith and prayer, the Indian often met fraud and force. He was quick to retaliate and resort to tomahawk
    and firebrand. To discuss the causes which led to the long
    series of Indian hostilities would lead us aside from our main path. We can only glance at the effect of these hostilities on the community whose history we are studying. The period of Indian hostilities began about the time of Andover's settlement; but the Indians in this immediate neighborhood were not at first drawn into the conspiracies. The colonists prepared for defence by organizing the militia, in which all able-bodied and "not timorous" males over sixteen years of age were enrolled. This organization was made in 1644.  The colony was divided into four counties: Suffolk, Norfolk,
 
 
 

        ANDOVER IN THE EARLY INDIAN WARS. 167

    Essex, Middlesex. There was one regiment in each county.

    The commanding officer of a regiment was called Sergeant- major. The commanding officer of all the forces was Sergeant-major-general. The first Major-general was Thomas Dudley. He was father of Mrs. Anne Bradstreet, of Andover. The Sergeant-major of the Essex regiment was Daniel Dennison, of Ipswich. He was brother-in-law to Mrs. Anne Bradstreet, and also to Mrs. Mercy Woodbridge, wife of the Rev. Mr. Woodbridge, of Andover [his wife was Patience Dudley, daughter of Governor Thomas Dudley]. He is described(1) as the "proper and valiant Major Daniel Denison, a good souldier and of a quick capacity his company are well  instructed in feats of warlike activity."  When the Indian depredations in the neighborhood of Andover, in the year 1675, became formidable, Major Dennison used every effort for the protection of the town, having not only his honor as a soldier at stake, but also the lives and property of his near and dear kindred. It was, doubtless, owing to his vigorous measures in cooperating with the local officers that the town of Andover suffered so little, in comparison with other frontier settlements.

     The following is one of the first Records found of military
    organization at Andover. It bears no date, but is placed in
    the books of the County Court Records, with papers from
    1658 to 1659:(2)--

     "TO THE HONORED COURT AT SALEM, You may be pleased hereby
    to take notice that the inhabitants of Andover have made choyse of John Osgood to be their Sergeant and chief commander in the roome of Sergeant Stevens who is willing and desirous to be dismissed. It is therefore our desire that the cort would bee pleased to allow and confirme our choyse of John Osgood for our Sergeant.

         FRANCIS DANE.       GEORGE ABBOTT.
         JOHN STEVENS.       THOMAS CHANDLER.
         HENRY INGOLLS.      JOHN LOVEJOY.
         THOMAS JOHNSON.     ANDREW GRAVES.
         ROBART RUSSELL.     DANIEL POOR.
         RICHARD BARKER.     WILLIAM BALLARD.
         THOMAS FARNUM.      EDMOND FAULKNER.
         GEORGE ABBOTT, JR.  ROBERT BARNARD."
         WILLIAM CHANDLER.

(1) Wonder-working Providence of Zion's Saviour.
(2) Vol. iv., p. 121.

168  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

     There are records which show that John Osgood was Ser-
    geant in 1661. In 1666(1) the officers at Andover were Lieu-
    tenant John Osgood, Ensign Thomas Chandler, Sergeant
    Henry Ingalls, also the same in 1675. In 1677 Dudley Brad-
    street was Captain, and John Osgood Lieutenant. In 1680
    the Essex militia was divided into two regiments. One of
    these (including Newbury, Rowley, Bradford, Andover, Tops-
    field, Salisbury, Amesbury, Haverhill) was put under com-
    mand of Maj. Nathaniel Saltonstall, of Haverhill, who had
    been captain of a company. The officers at Andover, 1680,
    were Captain Dudley Bradstreet, Lieutenant John Osgood,
    Ensign Thomas Chandler, Sergeant John Stevens, Sergeant
    John Barker. In 1683 several of the inhabitants of Andover
    petitioned the General Court for permission to raise another
    company to "compleat their troope to the number of forty
    eight men."  This was granted, and the command was given
    to Capt. John Osgood. In 1689 the militia of Essex County
    was divided into three regiments,-- Newbury, Salisbury,
    Haverhill, Andover, Amesbury, and Bradford forming one.
    The following is a list of Andover officers, covering, as regards those of the rank of captain, a period of one hundred
    years. The dates indicate the first record found:--

     Colonel. Dudley Bradstreet (1698).
     Major. Dudley Bradstreet (1695).
     Captain. Dudley Bradstreet (1677); John Osgood (l683);
    Thomas Chandler (1688); Christopher Osgood (1690); James
    Frye (1702); Benjamin Stevens (1706); John Chandler (1711);
    Timothy Johnson (1737); Joseph Sibson (1744); Nathaniel Frye
    (1745).

     Lieutenant. John Osgood (1666); Thomas Chandler (1685;)
    John Barker (1696); John Chandler (1696); Thomas Johnson
    (1697); Samuel Frye (1698); John Aslebe (1704); William
    Lovejoy (1714); Francis Dane (1717); George Abbott(1742);
    John Chandler (1724).

     Ensign. Thomas Chandler (1661); John Aslebe (1700); Fran-
    cis Dane. (1713).

     Sergeant. John Stevens (1660); John Osgood (1661); Henry
    Ingalls (1666); Thomas Farnum (1674); John Aslebe (1692);
    Ephraim Stevens (1695); William Chandler (1696); William
    Lovejoy (1696).

          (1) Essex County Court Papers, vol. xii., p. 24.
 
 
 
 

       ANDOVER IN THE EARLY INDiAN WARS. 169

     Corporal. Samuel Martin (1677); Nathan Stevens (1685);
    Samuel Holt (1685); Joseph Ballard (1688); Hooker Osgood
    (1689); Samuel Frye (1692); George Abbot (1693); Samuel
    Osgood (1694); Benjamin Barker (1690): Nehemiah Abbot
    (707)(1)

     In 1676 a letter, written by E. R.(2) [Edward Rawson or
    Edmund Randolph(?)], describes, for the information of the
    British Government, the condition of the colonial military
    force:--

     "They have no standing army, but their trained bands are
    twelve troops of horse and six thousand foot; each troop consisting of sixty horse besides officers are all well mounted and completely armed with back, breast, head-piece, buffe coat, sword, carbine, and pistols, each troop distin-guished by their coats. The foot also are very well furnished with swords, muskets, and bandaleers. There are no pikmen, they being of no use in the wars with the 1ndians..... There is only one 'old soldier' in the colony, the Governor, Mr. Leverett. He served in the late rebellion under the usurper Oliver Cromwell as a captain of horse.  The governor of the colony is always generall, and out of the rest of the magis-trates is chosen the major generall. They are places of good profit and no danger; they may stay at home and share the spoyle while younger men command the Army in the field
    against the enemy."

     The first record of alarms of hostile Indians at Andover
    is in the year 1675, the month of October. Then the whole
    colony was in a state of excitement, on account of the league
    made by Philip (sachem of the Wampanoags) of all the New
    England tribes against the English. No town felt secure
    against a sudden outbreak of the heretofore friendly Indians,
    or an onslaught of hostile tribes marching swiftly from. remote encampments. Major Dennison writes,(3) from Ipswich,
    to the Council in Boston, October 28, 1675:--

      "I am now advancing to Major Pike. I think I shall be able
    to afford him no more than the comfort of our presence for a

 (1) This list is perhaps not complete; but it contains the names which have been found after such search as the importance of the subject warrants.
 (2) Mass. His. Soc. Coll., Fourth Series, vol. iv.
 (3) Mass. Archives, vol. 1xviii-, p. 30.
 
 
 
 

    170 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

while, our posts at Topsfield & Andover being affrighted with the sight, as they say, of Indians which I have not time to examine till my return. It is hardly imaginable the panick fears that is upon our upland plantations & scattered places ..... The almighty and merciful God pity & helpe us. In much haste I brake off______"

In the month of November, impressments of men from the militia were made in all the towns, to fill up the quota of Massachusetts for an expedition into the country of the Narragansetts, who had joined with Philip. Twelve men were taken from Andover to complete the company commanded by Captain Gardiner. These were the following(1)--

    Joseph Abbot.      John Faulkner.  John Preston.
    Ebenezer Barker.   John Lovejoy.   Samuel Phillpes[Phelps]
    John Ballard.      John Marston.   Nathan Stevens.
    James Frie.        John Parker.    Edward Whittington.

Lieutenant Osgood, the commander of the Andover militia, in his return of their names describes the state of the company:--

"They are most of them now well fixed with armes and ammunition & cloathing. Edward Whittington wants a better musquete which wee know not well how to supply, except we take from another man which these times seems harde; we air now sending to Salem for sum.... for shoes and cloth for a coate for one or two."

These soldiers were marched in the dead of winter into the country of the Narragansetts and, December 19th, met the savages in the famous swamp-fight, where they defeated and completely destroyed their foe. In this fight Ebenezer Barker was wounded.(2)

     In subsequent years, large grants of land were made to the
    soldiers of the Narraganset fight. Seven different townships
    being laid out, "Narraganset, number three," Amherst,
    N. H., was granted to inhabitants of Salem, Marblehead,

(1) Mass. Archives, vol. 1xviii., p. 68.
(2) In the list of Major Appleton's men killed is named one of Andover, Robert Mackey(?) Drake's "Annals and Antiquities of Boston" names Joseph Abbot and Roger Marks, of Andover, as wounded. I do not find record of these names in the returns in the Archives.

ANDOVER IN THE EARLY INDIAN WARS. 171

Lynn, Gloucester, Andover, and other towns. Andover was allowed for nine soldiers.

The defeat of his allies did not daunt King Philip, but rather served to exasperate him for more desperate revenge. As soon as the spring opened, town after town was surprised and destroyed, and the most dreadful atrocities were committed.

February 10 occurred the attack on Lancaster, so graphically described by Mrs. Rowlandson, and familiar to every  reader of New England history. Flying rumors came to Andover of the shocking fate of the inhabitants of this town,  the mangled bodies of infants, and the painful captivity of  mothers, the burning of houses, and the bloody fight of soldiers and savages.

The Indians were on the march, so the rumor went, toward Chelmsford, and would soon attempt to cross the Merrimack and descend on Andover. Lieutenant Osgood sent despatches post haste to the Council at Boston, imploring help, and begging to be relieved from the order for soldiers to march out of town to Woburn,(1) since all were needed at home:--

"HONOURED GOVERNOR AND COUNCILL, these few lines are to let your Honours understand that the Indians have taken and destroyed the coburrg (?) which is a great threatening of near approaching danger unto us. It brings but ten or twelve miles from us, and this day seaven of our men are to march to Oburn according to your honours orders: we humbly crave this favour, if it may stand with your honours wisdom & favour to release our men that are to goe forth, as wee being an outside town & in as greate danger in our apprehension as any and may stand in as great need as any other town of help, this makes us bould to request this favour att your hands & shall acknow-ledge ourselves your obedient servants to serve to extent of our abilities with all readiness, thus desiring God to direct & guide your councills in all the greate & weighty difficul-ties & distress that are now on our hands, we Rest your humble servant,

                                          JOHN OSGOOD, Left.
                             In the name & behalf of our towne.
     "ANDOVER, 16 Feb. 1675."

(1) Mass. Archives, vol. 1xviii., p. 138.

172 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

Measures were taken as soon as possible to put the town in a state of defence; garrison(1) houses were built, and men appointed to defend them. A committee chosen to visit the town reported(2) it to be in a state of good defence:--

"In pursuance of your Honourable Councills orders dated March ye 15, 1675-6 appointing us ye subscribers as a committy for Essex to view & consider ye severall townes & to propose ye thoughts of what may bee advisable: In order for ye securing of ye people & their planting in this time of trou-ble: Wee met at Andover, where wee found twelve substantial Garrisons well fitted: which wee hope through God's blessing may bee sufficient to secure them from any sudden surprisal of the enemy to which Garrisons ye inhabitants of ye town are respectively appointed.

               "By your humble servants
                                 JOHN APPLETON.
                                 JOHN PUTNAM.
                                 THOMAS CHANDLER.
     "29th March 1675-6."(3)

It was also ordered by the Court that a fence of stockades, or stones, be built eight feet high from Charles River to Concord River, in Billerica, thence connecting by way of the large ponds with Merrimack River, which river, down "to the bay" with the bay would complete the circuit of some twenty towns, including Andover. These would be "environed round for the security and safety under God of the people, their houses goods & catell from the rage and fury of the heathen enemy."

The Andover people did not approve this means of defence, or feel willing to contribute men to guard the line of forts. They thought a more effectual protection would be to streng-then the garrisons and to send out, with parties of

(1) "These were built of hewn logs which lay flat upon each other; the ends being fitted for the purpose, were inserted in grooves cut in large posts erected at each corner. They inclosed an area of several square rods, were raised to the height of the roof of a common dwelling-house, and at two or more of the corners were placed boxes where sentinels kept watch. In some cases, several small buildings raised for the temporary accommodation of families were within the inclosure."-- Bouton's "History of Concord".
(2) Mass. Archives, vol. lxviii., p. 184.
(3) Ibid., p. 174.

ANDOVER IN THE EARLY INDIAN WARS. 173

workmen in the fields, guards of soldiers. They say that their planting grounds are mostly "environed by swampy and boughie ground," and are therefore comparatively easy to defend. They pray the Council to order the men to "work in such companies as they shall judge meete for their safety and defence."

On the 18th of March [28th, N. S.], the Indians crossed the Merrimack and sent two scouts to Andover. What depredation they committed is not recorded, but the people in great alarm despatched post riders to Ipswich, one by night and one by day, to beg for help. Major Dennison, not slow to protect his kindred and friends, hastened forward sixty men and at once apprised the Council in Boston of the condition of things. He writes that "if he had received orders he might have brought off from Andover some of his brother Bradstreet's best things."  He commits the result to Heaven exclaiming, "Let God arise and our enemies be scattered."

But, in spite of all the vigilance and precautions, the Indians surprised the town at last. This was on the 8th [or 18th, N. S.] of April, 1676. In this attack, one of the soldiers, who had passed safely through the bloody Narragansett  fight in the winter, was slain within sight of his own dwelling.(1) It is not impossible that the savages knew who were the men in town that had helped to murder their brethren in the swamp fight; at any rate, they, on this day, whether by accident or design, took revenge on two of these. They directed their course to the house of George Abbot, one of the garrisons. Tradition says that they were seen crossing the river, and that Ephraim Stevens, a scout, gave the alarm.  The villagers fled to the garrisons; but the Abbot brothers were at work in the fields, and did not reach the shelter before the savages were upon them. Joseph Abbot, the soldier, a strong, athletic young man about twenty-four years of age, made a brave resistance, and killed one or more of the Indians, but was finally set upon by the whole band and cut down,-- the first, and perhaps the only, Andover soldier

(1) Site of the garrison-house on the estate of the present residence of Mr. John Abbot, Central Street, west of the South Meeting-house.

174  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

ever slain in the town. His brother Timothy, a lad of thirteen years, was taken captive. The savages then hurried off, leaving the smitten household to its desolation. That such desolation ever came to the now peaceful spot it is difficult to realize. In the calm of a summer afternoon, the writer of this sketch stood upon the ground once trodden by the hurrying feet of the fleeing citizens and red with the blood of  the slain. Now the scene is tranquil, and bears no token that any deed of violence was ever done here. Broad fields stretch away, just greened after the mower's scythe; elm, ash, and maple, with the friendly apple tree, make a pleasant shade, and through their foliage the sun streaming in, tessellates the grass with a shifting carpet of light and shade.  Birds nest and sing undisturbed; from distant fields come sounds of labor; the cattle are driven into the farm-yard; the lengthening shadows and the striking of the meeting-house clock remind of the evening hour. In vain we try to call back to this serenity the struggle, the blood, the groans of the battle, the tears and the lament for the youthful dead. May they never come again to any home of Old Andover!

Besides their bloody work at George Abbot's, the savages also attacked the house of Edmond Faulkner, and wreaked  their vengeance on dumb brutes. Their attack is described  by the Rev. Increase Mather, in his "History of King Philip's War":--

"In the beginning of April they did some mischief at Chelmsford and Andover, where a small party of them put the town into a great fright, caused the people to fly into garrison houses, killed one man and burnt one house, and to show what barbarous creatures they are, they exercised cruelty towards dumb creatures.  They took a cow, knocked off one of her horns, cut out her tongue, and so left the poor creature in great misery. They put an horse, ox, and cow into a hovel and then set it on fire only to show how they are delighted in exercising cruelty."

     The most interesting account, however, is from the pen of one of Andover's own citizens. It is a letter to the Council, describing the situation of the town,-- its anxiety and distress and praying to be aided to maintain a sufficient guard.  The letter bears marks of haste and trepidation, and is, even

ANDOVER IN THE EARLY INDIAN WARS. 175

more than most of the old records, difficult to decipher. Possibly some words have not been exactly made out in the following copy:--

"TO THE HONOURED COUNCILL. The malitiah of our towne do humbly request your Honours to consider our condition the enemy has twice assaulted us; the last was Saturday last, who slew a lusty (?) younge mane & took his brother a youth & carried him away: we have had sum fforces to helpe us bute the enemy cannot be found when we goe after them; and wee ffind that wee are not abell to goe to worke about Improveing oure lands but are liable to bee cutt off nor are we able to raise .... men at our charge to defend ourselves wee fear greatly that wee shall not bee able to live in the towne to Improve our lands to raise a subsistence without som force be kept above us upon the river of merrimack & to Concord river, which being speedily & well defended with a competent quantity of soldiers all the Townes within might be in sum reasonable safty to follow theyre Imployes to raise corne & persue theyre catell .... [we] thought if one third off the men of each towne did attend that service so the other might bee in sum reasonable safty about their work, for now we are so distressed to thinke that our men are liable to bee shot whenever we stirr from our houses & our children taken by the cruell enemy, itt doe so distress us that wee know not what to doe, iff sum defence bee not made by ye forces above us wee must remove off iff we can tell where, before we have lost all lives & catell & horses by the enemy; we are compleatly able to fende ourselves in our garison iff we have warning to rest in, but otherwise out off oure house we are in continuall danger."(1)

     The letter goes on to say that the town of Andover, being
    a guard to the towns below, ought not in its distress to bear
    the whole burden of keeping a guard sufficient, but should
    receive help. It concludes :--

      "Praying God to directe & counsel you we rest.
                     Your humbell servantes
                             JOHN OSGOOD, Left.
     "ANDOVER 11: 10, 76."

     The captive carried away from Andover-- the boy Timothy
    Abbot-- was brought back in August by a squaw who took
    pity on his mother. His return is mentioned in Cobbet's

          (1) Mass. Archives, vol. 1xviii., p. 202.
 
 
 
 

    176 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

"New England Deliverances": "And Good-wife Abbot's boy of Andover was brought home, almost starved, by a poor squaw that had always been tender to him whilst in captivity. "

Hubbard says: "He was much pined with hunger."(1)

In this attack, the Indians also wounded(2) Roger Marks, another soldier of the Narragansett fight (son-in-law of Nicholas Holt). "About two months after this," says "Abbot's  History," quoting from Mr. Symmes's Thanksgiving sermon,  "the Indians surprised and captivated Mr. Haggit and two of  his sons."  But, although this may be correct and the persons  named made captive in Andover, there is no evidence of their being then residents of the town. No such name is found in the list of residents, 1678, and it is not till 1679 that Moses Haggit of Ipswich bought land southwest of Blanchard's  [since Hagget's] Pond, and agreed to pay church and town  rates as a citizen. It is not unlikely, however, that in the summer of 1676, the Haggits, father and sons, came from Ipswich to Andover to look at the land and arrange for the purchase, which may have been delayed on account of their captivity. The remoteness of the region from the town, and its proximity to the Indian resorts about Wamesit, especially its nearness to the pond, which would attract the Indians for fishing, rendered them liable to attack. A garrison house was built in this section at an early period. On account of the losses sustained by the town this year, the General Court abated their county rates. The attacks threatened to greatly injure the plantations. Many families were about to remove from Andover, there being a scarcity of corn and no security in planting. Lieutenant Osgood wrote at this time to the Council, praying them to take measures to prevent the desertion of the town. There were, consequently, garrisons and guards stationed across the country. The following is an extract from a report of them:--

(1) Timothy Abbot, when master of a family, never allowed a child to say he was hungry, saying that they did not know the meaning of the word hunger.  He lived on the present homestead of Mr. Asa A. Abbot and Mr. Sylvester Abbot.
(2) Mr. Symmes's Thanksgiving Sermon, 1768. Drake's Annals and Antiquities of Boston.
 
 
 
 

       ANDOVER IN THE EARLY INDIAN WARS. 177

      "Between Exeter & Haverhill a Garrison and 70 men.
      "Near Andover a garrison and 40 men.
      "At Pawtucket near Wamesit 'already settled.'
      "Between Chelmsford & Concord a garrison & 40 men.
      "Between Concord & Sudbury a garrison & 40 men.
      "Between Sudbury & Medfield a garrison & 40 men.
      "South side of Medfield a garrison & 40 men."(1)

     There was ordered also a "flying or moving army of three
    hundred men," one hundred of them to be friendly Indians.

     There was from time to time more or less call for soldiers
    to serve out of town; some were impressed, or volunteered
    for an expedition in the summer of 1677, to the region of the
    Kennebec River. The company, under the command of Capt. Benjamin Swett, fell into an ambush(2) at Black Point,
    Scarborough, and were cut off. Their leader and many men
    were slain.

     The following list of the slain is found in the Andover
    records:--

     "Killed by Indians June 29 1677 John, son of Joseph & Mary
    Parker.
     "John, son of Edward & Elizabeth Phelps.
     "James, son of Nathan & Mary Parker.
     "Daniel Blackhead, servant of Christopher Osgood."

     In the year 1677, Mr. Dudley Bradstreet was made Captain of the foot company in Andover. He took vigorous measures for defending the town, petitioning the General Court to increase the penalty for not working "in companies" and to compel all the "towns to keep out a small party to range ye outskirts whereby ye inhabitants may in their spirits be more settled and goe about their work for(3) their English and Hay harvest."

     After the defeat and death of King Philip, the hostile spirit subsided, and for a series of years there was a time of rest and comparative security. But the Revolution in England,

(1)  Mass. Archives, vol. 1xviii., page 251.
(2)  Southgate's History of Scarborough.
(3)  Mass, Archives, vol. 1xix., page 152.
                              12

178  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

1689, and the wars(1) of England and France embroiled the colonies, and the Indians were drawn into the contest, mainly acting with the French.

In 1689, the General Court made a change in the militia of  Essex County which was objected to by the Andover inhabitants as prejudicial to their interests. They petitioned for a different organization of the troops:--

"TO THE HONOURED GFNERALL COURT now sitting in Charles Towne this ninth day of March 1689-90, the petition of ye townes of Andover & Boxford, Humbly Sheweth.—

"That whereas ye Humble petitioners have been informed that this Hon’d Court hath taken off ye Towne of Boxford with other townes from ye upper Regiment in Essex & joyned them to another Regiment which wee Humbly conceive is greatly prejudicial to ye Country & to or Sd Townes in pticlar, by reason we lyinge soe neare to each other & ready upon all occasions of ye enemy's approach to relieve each other, which if disjoyned wee cannot doe, & for many other Reasons we humbly pray that this Honoured Court would please to take into their farther & serious consideration, this our petition. viz, that Boxford might still continue as part of ye upper Regiment in Essex, & farther yt our Souldiers may bee free from any press that may happen till ye Indian enemy be subdued or quieted, in Granting of which ye Honrs humble petitioners shall as in Duty bound for ever pray &c.
                              DUDLEY BRADSTREET.
                     "for     JOHN OSGOOD.
                    Andover   JOHN BARKER.
                              STEPHEN JOHNSON.
     "MOSES TYLER by order & in ye name of ye Town of Boxford."

     During the year 1689, the following deaths are recorded in
    the town books as having occurred either in the wars abroad,
    or by savage violence at home:--

     (1)The following classification of the wars may be convenient for reference:--
       1688-1698. Governor Phipps. King William's War.
       1703-1713. Governor Dudley. Queen Anne's War.
       1722-1725. Lieutenant-governor Dummer. Ralle's War.
       1744-1749. Governor Governor Shirley. King George's War.
       1749-1761. Shirley. French and Indian War.
                  Governor Pownal.  French and Indian War.
                  Governor Bernard. French and Indian War.
       Lieutenant-governor Hutchinson. French and Indian War.

ANDOVER IN THE EARLY INDIAN WARS. 179

"Lieut. John Stevens at Casko March 5 1689.
"Eleazar Streaton a servant & kinsman of Dea. John Frie died at ye eastward at Fort Ann Mch 15 1688-9.
"John Peters killed by the Indians Aug. 14, 1689.
" Andrew Peters killed by the Indians Aug. 14, 1689."

Early in 1690, active measures were taken by the Government for the defence of the frontier towns. By order(1) of the Governor and Council, May 14th, eighty troopers were to be detached from the several companies of the Essex Regiment, which was in command of Maj. Robert Pike. These troopers were to rendezvous at Andover on the 16th, and forty of them, under command of Captain Davis, to go to the defence of Concord; forty to be under Capt. Thomas Chandler, of Andover. On the 28th of May, it was further ordered, that two hundred soldiers well appointed with arms and ammunition be raised "for secur-ity of Bradford, Andover, Dunstable, Chelmsford, Groton, Lancaster, and Marlborough." These, it was ordered, "should constantly be kept together and improved moving up and down in their respective stations on the outside of the towns whereto they shall be assigned for defence of such towns, and the frontier towns shall send out one or two of the inhabitants who are acquainted with the woods for daily scouting." The following action was also taken in regard to the raising of more men in Andover, in answer to the petition of Captain Osgood:--

"It is granted that in case the captain of the foot company see it beneficial to them to make up said troop to the number of forty out of the foot company, of persons sufficient to attend such service otherwise the troops there to be serted into the Foot company and that to be divided, the new company to nominate their own officers and to send down their names to the Council to be allowed and commissionated before the last day of this inst."

     On the 28th of May, Capt. Thomas Chandler was appointed
    "to command the company that are to be impressed for the
    defence of the frontier towns from Dunstable eastward as far
    as Bradford, downwards, which company is to consist of forty
    troopers and thirty foot-soldiers."  Notwithstanding all this
    scouting and ranging of troopers and foot-soldiers who by day

              (1) General Court Records, May, 1690.
 
 
 

    180  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

    and by night were active and alert, travelling from town was
    unsafe. There were twenty fordable places in the Merrimack
    River between Wamesit and Haverhill, and, at any moment,
    the Indians were liable to cross and make an attack.

In 1696 (records the Rev. John Pike in his journal(1) ), -"old John Hoyt of Amesbury and young Peters of Andover were slain upon the road between Andover and Haverhill."  This Hoyt had before suffered from the Indians who had "plundered and despoiled him and burnt his house.(2) These deaths are registered in Andover records:--

"John Hoyt of Almsbury was killed here by Indians, Aug. 13, 1696. "
" William Peters killed by Indians Aug. 13, 1696."

On the twenty-second of February, 1697-8 (0. S.), the fourth of March, 1698 (N. S.), occurred the most considerable attack ever made on the town of Andover. In this attack, retribution followed and (it would seem), deliberate vengeance was taken for the crimes of one man whose wickedness was thus the means of bringing suffering on his innocent townsmen.  Capt. Pascoe Chubb, the son-in-law of Mr. Edmond Faulkner, two years before this attack in the same month, had committed an act of treach-ery toward the Indians. He was in command of Fort Pemaquid (which in 1693, had been built by Capt. John March),(3) and held a conference with a delegation of Penobscot Indians in regard to the exchange of prisoners. While the council, about a dozen Indians, and as many of the English, were in session, Chubb having previously made the plot, and had the Indians supplied with strong liquor to the verge of drunkenness, gave orders for a massacre.  The English soldiers fell upon the unsuspecting victims and slew several, two chiefs among them. Subsequently a force of French and Indians attacked the fort and threatened death with torture to the captain, if he should not surrender.  In his terror and remorse, he forgot his honor as commander, and in the most cowardly manner, gave up the fort,

(1) Mass. Historical Society's Proceedings, 1875, "Journal of Mr. Pike."
(2) Mass. Col. Records, 1695, June 15.
(3) Of Newbury,-- the same who began to build the vessel at Andover.

AND0VER IN THE EARLY INDIAN WARS. 181

stipulating only for personal safety. For this act of treason, as it was almost thought to be, he was cashiered, and put in Boston jail, whence he was released and allowed to live in seclusion at Andover, owing to the petitions and influence of friends.

Following is a petition made by him from the jail(1):--

"TO THE GREAT AND GENLL COURT OF HIS MAJESTYS PROVINCE OF THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY IN NEW ENGLAND Assembled att Boston by adjournment November 18th 1696.

"The Petition of Pasco Chubb late Commander of his Majestys  ffort William Henry at Pemaquid, Humbly sheweth.

"That yr Petitioner stands committed a Prisoner in Boston Goale for his Late surrendering & delivering up the aforesd Fort and Stores thereto belonging unto his Majestys enemies ....

"And whereas yr Petitioner is a very poore man, having a wife and children to Looke after wch by reason of his confine-ment & poverty are reduced to a meane and necessitous condition having not wherewithall either to defray his present necessary charges or to relieve his Indigent family .....

"Your Petitioner therefore humbly prays that this high and hon(1) Court will please to consider the premises soe as that he may now either be Brought to his Tryall or else upon giving sufficient Bayle be delivered from his present confinement, whereby he may be enabled to take some care of his poore family for their subsistence in this hard & deare winter season."

The Indians, doubtless in revenge for his cruelties (although Hutchinson thinks it was by "mear accident"), attacked the house where he was, and killed him and his wife.  "It is not probable they had any knowledge of the place(2) of  his abode," says Hutchinson; "but it caused them greater joy than the taking of many towns." "Rapin," he goes on to  say, "would have pronounced such an event the immediate judgment of Heaven. Voltaire, that in the place of supposed safety, the man could not avoid his destiny."

All the facts, however, go to indicate that it was the deliberate act of Indian revenge. The attack was led by the fierce and implacable foe of the whites, Assacumbuit. At this time

 (1) Mass. Archives, vol. lxx., 307.
 (2) In North Andover.

182 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

was made the attack on Captain Bradstreet's house, which is elsewhere(1) narrated. The tradition goes that the leader of the Indians had given his promise to an Indian, a friend of the Bradstreet family, that if he would guide them to the house, none of the family should be hurt. But he, it seems, could not, or did not, wholly control his company, for they killed the guest and relative of the family, "Major Wade's son of Mystick," and were about to carry off some of the household as prisoners. But, the leader interposing, these were releas-ed unharmed. This attack is mentioned (with a different reason for the Indians' mercy) by Cotton Mather in the "Magnalia:"—-

"The Winter was the severest that ever was in the memory of Man. And yet February must not pass without a stroke upon Pemaquid Chub,(2) whom the Government had mercifully permitted after his examination to retire unto his habitation in Andover. As much out of the way as to Andover there came above Thirty Indians about the middle of February as if their errand had been for vengeance upon Chub whom (with his wife) they now massacred there. They took two or three horses and slew three or four persons; and Mr. Thomas Barnard the worthy minister of the Place very narrowly escaped their fury. But in the midst of their Fury there was one piece of mercy the like whereof had never been seen before: For they had got Colonel Dudley Bradstreet into their hands, but perceiving the town Mustering to follow them, their Hearts were so changed that they dismissed their captives without any further Damage unto their Persons. Returning back by Haverhill, they killed a couple," etc.

Judge Sewall(3) records the same attack:--

"Feb. 24, 97-98 --Feb. 22 at Break of day Andover is surprised.  Lt. Col. Bradstreet's house rifled, his kinsman Wade slain, Capt. Chubb and his wife slain and three more. Some houses and Barns burnt and in one a considerable quantity of corn and twenty head of Cattel. Pulpit cushions taken away, fired but not quenched."

The Rev. John Pike,(4) in his journal, also chronicles the same attack:--

         (1) Chapter I., p. 130.
         (2) Mather's opinion concerning the cause here appears.
         (3) Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., Fifth Series, vol. v.
         (4) Mass. Hist. Soc. Proceedings, 1875.

ANDOVER IN THE EARLY IND1AN WARS. 183

"Feb. 22, 97-98, about 30 Indians came to Andover, took Col. Bradstreet's house and two more, killed Capt. Pasco Chub and his wife, Maj. Wade's son of Mystick and two others. Carried Col. Bradstreets family a little way & upon Cond: Released them. As they returned by Haverhill they met with Jonath: Hains and Sam. Ladd with ye elder sons. The two fathers were slain & the sons carried away, but young Hains soon after Returned which was his second escape from the enemy in less than two years time."

     They also attacked the house of Mr. Timothy Johnson,
    and killed his daughter, Miss Penelope Johnson, a young
    lady of nineteen years. The explicit statements of contem-
    poraries, noting the events in diary, agree in the date, Feb-
    ruary 22, and 1697, or March 4, 1698. Some town histories
    have made the statement that there were two attacks: one in
    February, and one in March, but this error must have arisen
    from a confusion of dates in some of the earlier histories,
    owing to the difference of writing in the "old style" and the
    "new style."

     In this attack some of the town records were carried off or
    destroyed, as appears from the following vote:--

     "1698. Voted that a committee be chosen to receive anew the records of the town lands, according to what papers may be found that have been upon record before; our town records being taken away by the enemy Indians."

     The hostilities between the English and French were nominally put an end to by the Treaty of Ryswick, in 1697; but the towns were by no means relieved of their apprehensions of Indian attacks, since savages, once maddened with the fury of slaughter, could not be immediately quieted by treaties made thousands of miles away, and sometimes from that very cause they rallied for a final and retaliative blow. The interval of rest had, therefore, been brief, when the formal renewal of the wars of the European nations again brought fresh danger to the struggling colonies.

     "Queen Anne's War" was under the control in America
    of her Majesty's Governor of the Province, Joseph Dudley.
    The military expeditions were mainly to the eastern fron-
    tiers. Col. John March was obliged to give up his ship-
    building operations in Andover to enter on active military
 
 
 

    184  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

    service. For his valorous conduct he received a tribute from
    the government:--

     "Nov. 30, 1703: Resolved passed us the house of Representa-
    tives,-- that there be allowed & paid out of ye publick treasury to Lieut. Coll. March the sum of Fifty pounds for the brave defence which by his conduct was made of her Majesty's Fort at Casco Bay when lately attacked by ye French & Indians & in. consideration of his wounds & damage which he then received."

     There are accounts in the town records of extra provision
    made for supplies of ammunition; also, by order of the government, the soldiers were furnished with snow-shoes; one hundred and twenty-five pairs were ordered for the North Reg-
    iment of Essex.(1) Four block-houses were built on the
    Merrimack River, two of which were in Andover. The following orders(2) were issued to the military officer at Andover, Capt. Christopher Osgood:--

     "I am directed by his Excellency our Governor to build two, (3) block houses in your town upon the brink of Merrimack river, one at the fording place called Deare's jump and one at a fording place commonly called Mr. Petters wading place both Places I am informed is in the Precinct of your company there-fore I order that you build them twelve foot wide & fifteen foot long with .... at one end & well covered that the men may be dry in wet weather, as to the charge I am not informed how it might be, but have desired Lieut. Barker to inform you how wee at Newbury have built ours," etc.

     Captain Osgood impressed ten men from his company,
    and in six weeks had the buildings done.(4) While some
    worked, others guarded, and were on the scout along the
    river.

     In July, 1706, Capt. Benjamin Stevens went in command of
    a company into the woods in "quest of the Indian enemy,"
    and, while he was gone, his house was broken into, and some

         (1) General Court Records, 1704, Nov. 18. Mass. Archives, vol. lxxi., pp. 67 and 152.
         (2) Mass. Archives, vol. lxxi., p. 69.
         (3) Two, three, and four houses are spoken of in different documents.
         (4) See petition in Records of General Court; also, Mass. Archives, vol. lxxi., p. 69.~

AND0VER IN THE EARLY INDIAN WARS. 185

things stolen, among them five certificates of wages due him and his soldiers for service in January and February. He petitioned for five other certificates, to be delivered him by the treasurer. Three of the certificates were ordered to be paid by the constables of Boston, one by the constable of Bradford, another by the constable of Haverhill. The total amount was L84 3s. 9d.(1)

The following from the town records shows what stock of ammunition was in the town in 1713:--

"Feb. ye 20th 1712-13. This may sertifye those selectmen that shall succeed us: that where as some time since our Town Stock of Ammunition was divided to Sundry persons, viz to Capt. John Chandler, Capt. Christopher Osgood, and some others we the subscribers have gathered it together all but some small parsels, the which we have given Ensign Ephraim Stevens for to gather and put to the Rest, as soon as he can:  And we have left all the Town Stock of Ammunition of powder, bullets, and flints with Left. John Aslebe for one year and then to be taken care of by ye select men for the time being. And the powder we left at Left. John Aslebes is one hundred and sixty-six pounds 166; and of bullets four hundred, twenty and eight pounds 428, and of flints thirteen pounds: wanting one ounce, (13). And we have Left the keas of the Town Stock of Ammunition with Ensign Ephraim
Stevens, to be at ye selectmen's service, when they shall have ocation for them, and there is two dry casks of the Towns left standing on ye chest that the Amonition is locked up in. One is a small powder cask headed up at both ends, the other open at one head.

      "Signed the day and year abovesaid.
                     EPHRAIM STEVENS
                     GEORGE ABB0TT         Selectmen
                     JOHN OSGOOD              of
                     EPHRAIM FOSTER        Andover."
                     NEHEMIAH ABBOTT

     The towns were never safe. In winter the Indians came
    on snow-shoes, and in summer by the rivers, plundering and
    killing, and then disappearing as suddenly as they had come,
    plunging into the depths of the forests. In the winter of
    1705, Governor Dudley wrote to Col. Saltonstall in regard to
    being prepared to meet the enemy:--

                Mass. Archives, "Petitions," 1704.

186  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

     "I pray you to give direction that your snow-shoe men from
    Newbury to Andover be ready at a moment's warning till the
    weather break up, then we may be quiet awhile."

     In the autumn of 1724 (September 25th) a petition was
    sent to the General Court to commission Capt. Benjamin
    Stevens, of Andover, leader of an expedition to Winipeseog
    Pond, "to discover the Indians camping places & haply find
    their canoes & by what or what manner they come down upon us in summer."

Of all the tales of Indian warfare connected with old Andover history, the one which has the most melancholy and romantic interest is that of Chaplain Jonathan Frye, who was mortally wounded in the year 1725, in the famous Lovewell's fight at Pequauket. He wandered for some time in the woods, and, as is supposed, died fifty miles from any English settlement, and twenty miles from the fort whence his company had marched. The English were at prayers when they first discovered the approach of an enemy. The young chaplain (he was only twenty) was ready to fight as well as to pray. Says a record: "Mr. Frye and another scalped the first Indian who was slain." The scalps were kept, as a reward was paid for them. A history of the fight, taken from the testimony of an eye-witness, was written soon after by the Rev. Thomas Symmes, of Bradford. The quaint language is worth preserving:--

"About the middle of the Afternoon, the Ingenious Mr. Jonathan Frie only son of Capt. James Frie of Andover, a young Gentleman of a Liberal Education, and who was chaplain to the company and was greatly Beloved by them for his excellent Performances and good Behavior and who fought with Undaunted Courage till that time of Day was mortally wounded. But when he could fight no longer, he prayed audibly severall times for the Preservation and Success of the Residue of the Company."

     Is there anything more pathetic in our annals of youthful
    heroism than this plain, unvarnished tale of the young chap-
    lain of Andover? It shows not only how dominant over the
    spirit of the time was the moral and religious sentiment,
    which alone lifts the battle-field above the plane of brute
    force, and redeems its passions from utter fiendishness, but

ANDOVER IN THE EARLY INDIAN WARS. 187

it pays an affectionate tribute to the rare qualities of the young man. He must have had a character remarkably uniting manly and Christian virtues, who could, at twenty, act as religious guide and at the same time comrade-in-arms of a company of frontier savage-hunters (of however excellent material it might be made), and secure the common respect and affection.

     A week after the fight the Rev. Mr. Symmes pronounced
    "A SERMON OCCASIONED BY THE FALL OF THE BRAVE CAPT.
    JOHN LOVEWELL AND SEVERAL OF HIS VALIANT COMPANY IN
    THE LATE HEROIC ACTION."  This was printed and prefaced
    by the historical narrative before alluded to. There can be
    no doubt that to listen to this discourse, referring to their
    townsman's tragic death, the Andover people went in large
    numbers. In fact the discourse may be regarded as largely
    commemorative of that special loss, Mr. Symmes having in-
    timate acquaintance with Andover; his sister being the
    wife(1) of Capt. Benjamin Stevens. The text of the sermon
    was, "How are the mighty fallen and the weapons of war
    perished." 2 Sam. i. 27.

     This sermon repays perusal. It is thoughtful and forcible, full of odd turns of expression that rival some of old Fuller's "Good Thoughts in Bad Times," and withal it has a martial ring, characteristic of the preaching of these times; when the wars of the Israelites furnished more acceptable texts than the gospel of peace:--

     "We must not be Disheartened & cast down because a crew of Salvages have killed a few Brave Men. No, verily, its beneath a Man, much more a Christian whose heart is fixed trusting in the Lord, to be thus affected. Such news should not daunt and terrify a soldier, but whet his Courage. Especially it should rouse ‘em on such occasions to Rally forth and come to March with utmost expedition to Recover if possible our Dear Breth-ren that lie Wounded and without Relief in a Howling Wilder-ness, that they mayn't Perish with Famine or fall into the hands of a Barbarous Enemy, to be killed over again & Tortured with Indian Cruelty,

           (1) "Here 1yes what was mortal of Mrs. Susannah Stevens widow of Benjamin Stevens, Esq., and Daughtr of ye Revd. Mr. Zechariah Symmes of Bradford who died July 30 1753, in ye 83 year of Her Age."
                         Epitaph-- Old Burying Ground.

    188  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

and also to give Christian Burial to the Remains of our Departed Heroes ..... We that tarry at home must get into the Mount and Pray for em'. A Good Woman in her Closet (tho' she's afraid to take a Gun in her hand) may serve her Country to a very good purpose even in respect of the War as really as the Magistrate at the Council Board or the most daring and well advised commander in the open Field in a thro' engagement. For Prayer and Faith always were, are, and will be the Church's Best Weapons."(1)

     The place of the fight was on the northeast end of Saco
    Pond, on the edge of a wood" where there were few trees
    and scarce any brush." There were about forty English engaged, and twice as many Indians, by whom the English had
    been ambushed. The fight lasted all day, when the savages
    retreated. Seventeen of the English made their way back
    through the woods to the fort at Ossipee Lake; twelve died
    in the woods, and their bodies were afterwards found and
    buried where they lay; three were "lost by the way and
    never found."

     The English, retreating from the fight at the wood, fell
    back upon the pond, and to its waters the wounded crept, to
    slake their thirst and staunch their wounds; crimsoning the
    water with their blood. Some crawled off into the thick
    wood and died there, while a few, wounded but able to walk,
    started on their way toward the camp. Among the latter was
    Chaplain Frye. After journeying painfully for some miles
    with his friends, Eleazar Davis, of Concord, and Lieutenant
    Farwell, of Dunstable, he begged them to save themselves
    and leave him to his fate, "not to hinder themselves any
    longer for his sake; for that he found himself Dying." Then
    he lay down, "telling them he should never rise more." He
    gave a message to be delivered to his father, that he "ex-
    pected in a few hours to be in eternity and that he was not
    afraid to die." "Whereupon," says the record, "they left
    him; and this Hopeful Gentleman Mr. Frie who had the
    Journal of the March in his pocket has not been heard of
    since."

     This incident of the abandoning a dying comrade in the
    wilderness forms the ground-work of Hawthorne's tale of

              (1) The Italics are in the original.
 
 
 
 

       AND0VER IN THE EARLY INDIAN WARS. 189

    "Roger Malvin's Burial."  No one who compares the facts
    with the romance can fail to see that in the psychological
    and ethical studies of this parting of Chaplain Frye with his
    comrades, the greatest of New England romance writers
    found the materials for his tale. He himself says it was an
    incident of Lovell's fight in 1725, and that the characters
    may be recognized notwithstanding the substitution of fic-
    titious names. The only recorded instance of a comrade's
    being deliberately left is that of the chaplain from Andover.
    Therefore the probability amounts to certainty that with
    name and age changed, Jonathan Frye is Roger Malvin, and
    Eleazar Davis, who survived to reach home, his comrade,
    Reuben Bourne; the details, and the subsequent history of
    their lives being varied by the romancer's imagination to suit the purposes of his story.

The reluctance of Reuben to leave his dying friend; that  friend's persuading him to do so, appealing to his affection for his betrothed, the daughter of Reuben, and holding out the hope that he may yet come back with a party and rescue the comrade whom he leaves (a hope which Roger, while holding it out as a motive to his friend to quit him for the present, knows to be vain); the final leave-taking; Reuben Bourne's life-long remorse for this act, his final unwitting expiation of the sin that haunted his imagination, by shooting his own son, by accident, on the very spot,-- these are all evolved from the poet-philosopher's musing on the fate of Chaplain Frye, and the words of the ancient chronicler, "Whereupon, they left him."

"Roger. 'There is not two days' life in me Reuben, and I will no longer burden you with my useless body, when you can scarcely support your own. Your wounds are deep and your strength is failing fast, yet, if you hasten onward alone you may be preserved.  For me there is no hope, and I will await death here.'

"Reuben. 'Should I therefore leave you to perish and to lie unburied in the wilderness!  No, if your end be in truth approaching, I will watch by you and receive your parting words. I will dig a grave here by the rock, in which if my weakness overcomes me, we will rest together; or if Heaven gives me strength, I will seek my way home.'
 
 
 

    190 HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

     "Roger. 'In the cities and wherever men dwell they bury their dead in the earth: they hide them from the sight of the living; but here, where no step may pass perhaps for a hundred years, wherefore should I not rest beneath the open sky covered only by the oak leaves when the autumn winds shall strew them?’"

     Thus it was that Jonathan Frye rested, the forest around
    him, the sky above. On the spot where tradition says he
    died, now surrounded by the homes and busy industries of
    the city which commemorates his name, a wild rose-tree
    sprang and flourished, and its annual flowers, plucked with a
    half superstitious feeling by the visitor, have been a more
    effectual memorial than storied urn or animated bust."

     A ballad written in 1725, called the "Most-beloved song
    in all New England" contains this stanza alluding to Mr.
    Frye:

       "Our worthy Captain Lovewell among them there did die
       They killed Lieutenant Robbins and wounded good young Frye
       Who was our English chaplain he many indians slew
       And some of them he scalped when bullets round him flew."

     The large elm tree which has stood in beauty and verdure until within a few years, and whose trunk now remains, on the roadside near the birthplace of Chaplain Frye, was set out by his hands,-- (a sapling from the wood) the year of his death. Mr. Frye was engaged to be married to a young girl whom his parents did not regard with approval as suited to him in point of birth and fortune.

     It is said by a writer,(1) whose residence in Andover seventy-five years ago made him familiar with the then current traditions, and who was an enthusiast in the search for the romance of history, that the enlistment of young Frye in military service arose from the conflict of duties and feelings which was caused by his parents' disapproval of his love. The story is thus told:--

"Among the number who fell was Mr. Jonathan Frye, a student in divinity, who was Lovewell's chaplain and who had joined this little band from some affair of the heart. He made him-self conspicuous in the fight, and as described, acted with the reckless

        (1) Samuel L. Knapp's Lectures on American Literature. He was Preceptor of Franklin Academy, 1805.

        ANDOVER IN THE EARLY INDIAN WARS. 191

    valour, which is often found to belong to such a state of mind.  The fair one to whom he was thought by his friends to be imprudently attached was not content with the praises others were ready to bestow upon the lost object of her affections; and, although only fourteen years of age, struck her harp in mournful lays upon her Philander's fate and produced an elegy which has survived to this day; being lately found in an ancient manuscript of a gentleman of the native place of the lovers and lately transmitted to me. If it does not burn with a Sapphic blaze it gives more of the light of history than all the odes of the Lesbian dame on her lost Phaon. Miss Susannah Rogers calls on her muse to assist her in describing the youthful warrior, who afar off was resting without his shroud on the battle-field of glory. She says that his person was comely, his age just twenty-one-- his genius of the highest excellence, and that he was the only son of his parents, beloved by all who knew him. His valor, his piety, his prayers amidst the fight, his wounds all bleeding, pass in review before her streaming eyes and she sees the howling wilderness where he fell. She notes the fortitude and resigna-tion with which he died or rather his exhibition of it, when they left him to die, for he was not dead when his companions were under the necessity of leaving him to perish. The parental grief is not forgotten and her own loss is touched upon with truth and delicacy ..... This elegy of the bereaved fair is too long for my purpose."

     Although too long for a lecture on American Literature, it is, however long and however devoid of poetic fire, properly to be preserved in any sketch of Andover history. And surely it is not to be regarded lightly, though its composition may provoke a smile. If a town wept the fate of this fallen brave, and spoke his praise, surely the grief of this poor girl whose love had been of so melancholy an ending, in whatever phrases it finds vent, should awaken sympathy and excite compassion. Her address to the parents of her lover is certainly evidence of a heart free from malice and moved to sympathy even with those who scarcely acknowledged her right to sympathy.

        THE MOURNFUL ELEGY ON MR. JONATHAN FRYE. 1725.

           "Assist ye muses; help my quill
            Whilst floods of tears do down distil

    192  HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF ANDOVER.

           Not from mine eyes alone, but all
           That hears the sad and doleful fall
           Of that young student Mr. Frye
           Who in his blooming youth did die.
           Fighting for his dear country's good
           He lost his life and precious blood.
           His father's only son was he
           His mother loved him tenderly
           And all that knew him loved him well
           For in bright parts he did excel
           Most of his age: for he was young
           Wounded and bleeding he was left
           And of all sustenance bereft
           Within the hunting desert great
           None to lament his dismal fate
           A sad reward, you'll say, for those
           For whom he did his life expose
           He marched out with courage bold
           And fought the Indians uncontrolled
           And many of the rebels slew.
           At last, a fatal bullet came
           And wounded this young man of fame
           And pierced him through and made him fall
           But he upon the Lord did call
           He prayed aloud; the standers-by
           Heard him for grace and mercy cry
           The Lord did hear and raised him so
           That he enabled was to go.
           For many days he homeward went
           Till he for food was almost spent
           Then to the standers-by declared
           Death did not find him unprepared.
           And there they left him in the wood
           Some scores of miles from any food
           Wandered and famished all alone
           None to relieve or hear his moan
           And there without all doubt did die--
            "And now I'll speak to Mr. Frye,
           Pray sir be patient; kiss the rod
           Remember this the hand of God
           Which has bereft you of your son.
           Your dear and lovely Jonathan
 
 
 
 

       ANDOVER IN THE EARLY INDIAN WARS. 193

           Although the Lord has taken now
           Unto himself your son most dear
           Resign your will to God and say
           'Tis God that gives and takes away;
           And blessed be his name; for he--
           For he has caused this to be.
           And now to' you, his mother dear
           Be pleased my childish lines to hear,
           Mother refrain from flowing tears;
           Your son is gone beyond your cares
           And safe at rest in Heaven above
           With Christ who was his joy and love,
           And in due time I hope you'll be
           With him to all eternity.
           Pray madam pardon this advice
           Your grief is great, mine not much less,
           And if these lines will comfort you
           I have my will, Farewell, adieu."

     A poem of much beauty and pathos has been written by
    Mr. Upham of New Hampshire, "On Visiting, the Scene of
    Lovewell's Fight." The following stanzas selected from it
    are a not inappropriate requiem for all the soldiers of our
    own and other towns who perished in the early Indian(1)
    wars:--

          "The bugle is silent, the war-whoop is dead,
          There's a murmur of waters and woods in their stead,
          And the raven and owl chant a symphony drear
          From the dark-waving pines o'er the combatants' bier.

          "Sleep, soldiers of merit, sleep, gallant of yore,
          The hatchet is fallen, the struggle is o'er;
          While the fir-tree is green and the wind rolls a wave
          The tear-drop shall brighten the turf of the brave!"
 

       (1) The history of the later Indian wars, 1744-1761, is separated from that of the first century, because it seems to connect more properly with the Revolutionary period, the same men being in service in the Revolution who had been trained in the old French War.

               13